Contents

Chapter 1. Natural and Cultural Values

Chapter 2. Diversity and Complexity Values

Chapter 3. Ecosystem Integrity and Health Values

Chapter 4. Widlife Values

Chapter 5. Anthropocentric Values

Chapter 6. Intrinsic Natural Values

Chapter 7. The Home Planet



Chapters 6 and 7, translated into German: "Eine Ethik für den gesamten Planten: Gedanken über den Eigenwert der Natur," Natur und Kultur: Transdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für ökologische Nachhaltigkeit 7(no. 2, 2006):24-40.     Download/print in PDF format.

 



Published Critical Notice of Conserving Natural Value

Edwin P. Pister (California Department of Fish and Game and Desert Fishes Council) says: "Of the many books appearing in the past decade relating to biological conservation I would rate Conserving Natural Value among the most important." Review in Journal of Wildlife Management 61(1997):256.

Michael P. Nelson (Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "An Amalgamation of Wilderness Preservation Arguments," pages 154-198 in J. Baird Callicott and Michael P. Nelson, eds., The Great New Wilderness Debate (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998), citation on p. 184, p. 197.

Richard B. Primack (Biology, Boston University) cites Conserving Natural Value: "A leading environmental philosopher lays out the ethical arguments for preserving biological diversity. In Essentials of Conservation Biology, 2nd ed. (Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Publishers, 1998), citations on p. 126, p. 127, p. 129, p. 135, p. 143.

Christopher Preston (Philosophy, University of Oregon, University of Montana) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Epistemology and Intrinsic Values: Norton and Callicott's Critiques of Rolston," Environmental Ethics 20(1998):409-429, citations on p. 411, p. 413, p. 416.

Clare Palmer (Philosophy, University of Stirling, UK) cites Conserving Natural Value. In Environmental Ethics (Santa-Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1997), p. 42, pp. 56-57, pp. 94-94, p. 109 (for its arguments about intrinsic value in and the conservation of wilderness), p. 160, also cf. p. 143, p. 180.

Peter B. Moyle (Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis) and Petrea R. Moyle (Natural Heritage Institute, San Francisco) cite Conserving Natural Value. "The best arguments for protection of biodiversity, from our perspective, are the ethical and moral arguments ... e.g. Rolston 1994). Ultimately, if these arguments do not prevail, much of the world's biodiversity is likely to be lost." In "Endangered Fishes and Economics: Intergenerational Obligations," Environmental Biology of Fishes 43(no. 1, 1995):29-37, citation on p. 30, p. 37.

Nicholas Agar (Philosophy, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand) repeatedly cites Conserving Natural Value. In Life's Intrinsic Value: Science, Ethics, and Nature (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), citations on pp. 67-68, p. 87, pp. 133-134, p. 136, p. 175, p. 178, p. 179, p. 181.

Mikael Stenmark (Theology, Uppsala University, Sweden) features Rolston's position in Conserving Natural Value as one of four leading philosophers who have major importance for environmental decision making. In Environmental Ethics and Policy Making (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2001), citations passim. Previously published in Swedish.   Again:     Stenmark cites Conserving Natural Value. In "The Relevance of Environmental Ethical Theories for Policy Making," Environmental Ethics 24(2002):135-148, citations on p. 142, p. 144, p. 145, p, 146.

Thomas N. Gladwin, James J. Kennelly, and Tara-Shelomith Krause (Global Environment Program, School of Business, New York University) cite Conserving Natural Value for its analysis of the full range of values residing in nature, including the primary value of aggregate life-support services provided by the entire natural system. In "Shifting Paradigms for Sustainable Development: Implications for Management Theory and Research," Academy of Management Review 20(1995):874-907, citation on p. 893, p. 905.

Ronald E. Purser (Organization Development, Loyola University, Chicago), Changkil Park (Organization Behavior, Case Western Reserve University) and Alfonso Montuori (Systems Science, Saybrook Institute and College of Notre Dame, San Francisco) cite Conserving Natural Value for its account of how a responsibility for preserving the health of the land has become a major concern. In "Limits to Anthropocentrism: Toward an Ecocentric Organization Paradigm?" Academy of Management Review 20(1995):1053-1089, citation on p. 1070, p. 1071, p. 1073.

Louis P. Pojman (Philosophy, United States Military Academy, West Point) cites Conserving Natural Value for its concept of biotic community. In Global Environmental Ethics (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co., 2000), p. 325.

Ned Hettinger (Philosophy, College of Charleston) and Bill Throop (Philosophy and Environmental Studies, Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT) cite Conserving Natural Value for its discussion of stability, integrity, and change in ecosystems. In "Refocusing Ecocentrism: De-emphasizing Stability and Defending Wilderness," Environmental Ethics 21(1999):3-21, citation on p. 7. p. 12, p. 13.
    Again: Hettinger cites Conserving Natural Value on the question of wilderness and rural nature. In "Respecting Nature's Autonomy in Relationship with Humanity." Pages 86-98 in Thomas Heyd, ed., Recognizing the Autonomy of Nature: Theory and Practice (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005), citations on pp. 88-89, p. 98.
   Again:   Hettinger cites Conserving Natural Value on exotic species, especially feral mustangs, also on nature returning and naturalizing. In "Exotic Species, Naturalisation, and Biological Nativism," Environmental Values 10(2001):193-224, citations on pp. 196-198, p. 203, p. 211, p. 222, p. 224.

Sahotra Sarkar (Philosophy, University of Texas, Austin) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Wilderness Preservation and Biodiversity Conservation--Keeping Divergent Goals Distinct," BioScience 49(1999):405-412, citation on p. 407, p. 412.

Thomas R. Stanley, Jr. (National Biological Service, Fort Collins, CO) cites and quotes from Conserving Natural Value. In "Ecosystem Management and the Arrogance of Humanism," Conservation Biology 9(1995):255-262, citations on p. 258, p. 262.

James E. Coufal and Charles M. Spuches (Environmental Sciences and Forestry, SUNY, Syracuse, NY) cite Conserving Natural Value in Environmental Ethics in Practice: Developing a Personal Ethic (Syracuse, NY: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 1995), Appendix D12.

J. Baird Callicott (Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point) analyzes the value theory in Conserving Natural Value. In "Intrinsic Value in Nature: A Metaethical Analysis," EJAP, The Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy, Issue on Justifying Value in Nature, Issue 3 (Spring 1995), citations passim.

Viriato Soromenho Marques (Philosophy and Law, University of Lisbon, Portugal) says that Conserving Natural Value is "a work that occupies a unique place on a new horizon of philosophical investigation, just now emerging." Review, Philosophica (Lisbon) No. 5(April 1995):130-131.    Again: Soromenho-Marques cites Conserving Natural Value. In O Futuro Frágil: Os desafios da crise global do ambiente (The Fragile Future: The Challenges of the Global Environmental Crisis) (Mira-Sintra, Lisbon, Portugal: Publicaçoes Europa-América, Lda, 1998), citation on p. 140, p. 222.

William Stolzenburg (Editor, Nature Conservancy) quotes a passage from Conserving Natural Value on ethics and compromise in nature conservation in "Ten Things You Can Do to Save Life's Diversity," Nature Conservancy 46 (no. 4, July/August 1996):16-23, quotation on p. 23.

Bayard L. Catron (Public Policy and Ethics, George Washington University) cites Conserving Natural Value for its arguments about intrinsic value. In "Does Deep Ecology Need Intrinsic Value?" pages 24-39 in Nina Witoszek, ed., Rethinking Deep Ecology (Oslo, Norway: Center for Development and the Environment, 1996), citation on p. 30, pp. 35-36.

Philip Cafaro (Philosophy, Colorado State University) says: "This is a strong book, clearly written and carefully thought through. The author's firm grasp of the policy issues involved and of the science involved in the policy issues means he does not waste his reader's time with far-fetched examples or a simplistic application of general principles. He has a knack for focusing on what is most important in a debate, presents the alternatives clearly, and avoids knocking down straw men. ... Rolston's own positions are clearly stated and not overly hedged with qualifications. Such a style is well-suited to advance debate and furthers our understanding of these issues. I recommend this book..." "Holmes Rolston III's Conserving Natural Value admirably performs the service for the discipline of environmental ethics [of introducing researchers to key issues in the field]." Review in Conservation Biology 9(1995):965-966.   Again: Cafaro cites Conserving Natural Value for its accounts of wilderness and intrinsic value in nature. In "For a Grounded Conception of Wilderness and More Wilderness on the Ground," Ethics and the Environment 6(2001):1-17, citations on p. 7, p. 9, p. 11, p. 14, p. 15, p. 17.

Heiki Reila (Theology, University of Tartu, Estonia) cites Conserving Natural Value in Teoloogiline keskkonnaeetika ja inimkeskne traditsioon. Mónede uudsete keskkonnaeetika lähete vórdlev analüüs (Environmental Ethics and the Tradition of Anthhropocentrism. A Comparative Analysis of Some New Approaches in Contemporary Theological Ethics Confronting Environmental Problems) (in Estonian) (University of Tartu, Estonia, Master's Thesis, 1996), citations on p. 11, p. 119.

Emyr Vaughan Thomas (Directorate of Policy and Science, Countryside Council for Wales, Ffordd Penrhos, Bangor, Wales) features Rolston's value theory, citing Conserving Natural Value.  In "Rolston, Naturogenic Value and Genuine Biocentrism," Environmental Values 6(1997):355-360, citations passim.

Catherine Larrère (Philosophy, Université Michel de Montaigne, Bordeaux III, France) cites Conserving Natural Value for its analysis of intrinsic value in nature. In Les philosophies de l'environnement (Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1997), p. 27, p. 29, p. 30.   Again:   Catherine Larrère and Raphaël Larrère (Agronomy, Director of Research, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), France) cite Conserving Natural Value for its concept intrinsic value in nature. In Du bon usage de la nature. Pour une philosophie de l'environnement (On the Good Use of Nature: Toward a Philosophy of the Environment) (Paris: Aubier, 1997), citation on p. 240, p. 340.

Markku Oksanen (Philosophy, University of Turku, Finland) cites Conserving Natural Value for its discussion of biodiversity. In "The Moral Value of Biodiversity," Ambio (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences)26 (no. 8, Dec. 1997):541-545, citation on pp. 544-545.

Rick O'Neil (Philosophy, Transylvania University, Lexington, KY) cites Conserving Natural Value for its claims about objective, intrinsic value in nature. In "Intrinsic Value, Moral Standing, and Species," Environmental Ethics 19(1997):45-52, citation on p. 49.

Stan Godlovitch (Philosophy, Human Sciences, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand) cites Conserving Natural Value for its discussion of value in nature. In "Evaluating Nature Aesthetically," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65(1998):113-125, citation on p. 124.

Markku Oksanen (Philosophy, University of Turku, Finland) cites Conserving Natural Value for its argument about how natural values underlie cultural and economic values. In Nature as Property: Environmental Ethics and the Institution of Ownership (Turku, Finland: Reports from the Department of Practical Philosophy, University of Turku, Volume 10, 1998), citation on p. 44, p. 212.

Yu Mouchang (Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing) cites Conserving Natural Value and the work of Rolston in environmental ethics as one of the leading figures in the West, devoting a section to the exegesis and evaluation of Rolston's work. In Xinshiji Xinshijiao (Eco-Ethics--from Theory to Practice) (Beijing: Shengtai Lunlixue, 1999), citations on pp. 46-52, passim.

Malcolm A. Jeeves (Neuro-psychology, University of St. Andrews) and R. W. Berry (Genetics, University of London) cite Conserving Natural Value. In Science, Life, and Christian Belief (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998), p. 228, p. 296.

Theodore W. Nunez (Philosophy and Religious Studies, Villanova University) cites Conserving Natural Value. In Holmes Rolston, Bernard Lonergan, and the Foundations of Environmental Ethics, Ph.D. dissertation, 1999, Catholic University of America, Washington. This is published (in part) as: "Rolston, Lonergan, and the Intrinsic Value of Nature," Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (no. 1, Spring, 1999):105-128.    Again:   Nunez cites Conserving Natural Value for its discussion of relevant differences between nature and culture In "Can a Christian Environmental Ethic Go Wild? Evaluating Ecotheological Responses to the Wilderness Debate," pages 329-348 in John Kelsey and Sumner B. Twiss, eds., The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2000), citations on p. 332, p. 333, p. 345.

Bryan G. Norton (Philosophy, Georgia Institute of Technology) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Biodiversity and Environmental Values: In Search of a Universal Earth Ethic," Biodiversity and Conservation 9(2000):1029-1044, citation on p. 1030, p. 1044.   Again:    Norton cites Conserving Natural Value, criticizing Rolston's objectivist epistemology. In "Objectivity, Intrinsicality and Sustainability: Comment on Nelson's `Health and Disease as "Thick" Concepts in Ecosystemic Contexts,'" Environmental Values 4(1995):323-332, citation on p. 328.

Michael P. Nelson (Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Aldo Leopold, Environmental Ethics, and the Land Ethic," Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(no. 4, 1998):741-744, citation on p. 741, p. 744.

Arthur H. Westing (Westing Associates in Environment, Security and Education, Putney, VT) cites Conserving Natural Value as a book helping to formulate core environmental values. In "Core Values for Sustainable Development," Environmental Conservation 23(no. 3, 1996):218-225, citation on p. 218, p. 225.

Michael Samways (Zoology, University of Natal, South Africa) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "The Art of Unintelligent Tinkering," Conservation Biology 10(1996):1307.   Again:  Samways cites Conserving Natural Value. in "A Conceptual Model of Ecosystem Restoration Triage Based on Experiences from Three Remote Oceanic Islands," Biodiversity and Conservation 9(2000):1073-1083, citation on p. 1077, p. 1082.

Maria José Varandas Martins da Silva cites Conserving Natural Value and Rolston's value theory as the basis of her analysis. In O Valor da Natureza: Caminhos para uma Éthica Ecocentrada (Values in Nature: Toward an Ecocentric Morality). Faculdade de Letras da Universidade Clássica de Lisboa, 2000. M. A. thesis, University of Lisbon. In Portuguese. Citations passim.

Craig L. Shafer (The George Wright Society, Hancock, MI) cites Conserving Natural Value for its analysis of the concept of the "natural" as applied to park management policy. In "The Northern Yellowstone Elk Debate: Policy, Hypothesis, and Implications," Natural Areas Journal 20(no. 4, 2000):342-359, citation on p. 344.

Bill Throop (Green Mountain College, Vermont) cites Conserving Natural Value for its analysis of the concept of the wild. "Rolston (1994) contains an excellent discussion of different senses in which humans are, and are not, parts of nature." In "Humans and the Value of the Wild," Human Ecology Review 3(no. 1, 1996):3-7, citations on p. 6, p. 7.

Jan Wawrzyniak (Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland) cites Conserving Natural Value. In Teoretyczne podstawy neonaturalistycznej bioetyki rodowiskowej (The Theoretical Foundations of Neonaturalistic Environmental Bioethics), Wydawnictwo Naukowe IF UAM (IF UAM Publishers), Pozna , 2000), citations passim.

Theresa Satterfield (Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon) cites Conserving Natural Value on intrinsic value in nature, using Rolston's taxonomy of values in nature as a coding framework to organize her survey instrument and to classify her research results analyzing what kinds of values persons hold, and how these values can be better elicited. In "In Search of Value Literacy: Suggestions for the Elicitation of Environmental Values," Environmental Values 10(2001):331-359, citations on p. 333, pp. 340-342, p. 345, p. 347, p. 349, p. 352, p. 358.

Mark Woods (Philosophy, University of Dan Diego) and Paul Veatch Moriarty (Philosophy, Longwood University) cite Conserving Natural Value on exotic species, especially feral mustangs. In "Strangers in a Strange Land: The Problem of Exotic Species," Environmental Values 10(2002):163-191, citation on p. 173, p. 190.

Piers H.G. Stephens, (Politics and Philosophy, Manchester Metropolitan University) cites Conserving Natural Value in a discussion of the extent of naturalness remaining on Earth after extensive human occupation. In "Nature, Purity, Ontology," Environmental Values 9(2000):267-294, citation on p. 269, p. 289.

Paul Gimeno has an extensive review of Conserving Natural Value. "Éthique environnementale, valeur, anthropocentrisme et démocratie (Environmental Ethics, Value, and Democracy)," Critique: Revue generale des publications francaises et etrangeres (Paris) 54(no. 612, 1998):225-245, citations passim. Rolston's position can be used effectively to criticize three deadly assumptions widely held in Europe concerning environmental ethics: that it is necessarily founded on a naturalistic theory of value, that it reduces the value of human beings to that of other animals, and that environmental ethics implies a politics that contradicts modern democratic political theory. In French.

J. Baird Callicott (Philosophy, University of North Texas) cites and quotes from Conserving Natural Value on intrinsic value in nature and its effectiveness in conservation policy. In "The Pragmatic Power and Promise of Theoretical Environmental Ethics: Forging a New Discourse," Environmental Values 11(no, 1, 2002):3-25, citations on p. 11, p. 25. Again: J. Baird Callicott (Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton) cites Conserving Natural Value for its analysis of intrinsic value in nature. In "Multicultural Environmental Ethics," Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 130(no. 4, Fall 2001):77-97, citation on p. 89, p. 96.

Wayne Ouderkirk (Empire State College, SUNY, Cobleskill, NY) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Mindful of the Earth: A Bibliographical Essay on Environmental Philosophy," The Centennial Review (College of Arts and Letters, Michigan State University) 42(no. 1, Winter, 1998):353-392, citations on pp. 362-363.

Friedrich Valjavec cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Sesshafte Jäger, akkulturierte Sammler (Sedentary Hunters, Acculturated Gatherers)" zur Cambridge-Enzyklopädie zeitgenössicher Wildbeuter (Cambridge Encyclopedia of Contemporary Hunter-Gatherers)", Anthropos (International Review of Anthropology and Linguistics, Anthropos Institut) 96(no. 1, 2001):207-217, citation on p. 215, p. 217.

Robert L. Chapman (Philosophy and Religious Studies, Pace University, New York) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "The Goat-stag and the Sphinx: The Place of the Virtues in Environmental Ethics," Environmental Values 11(2002):129-144, citation on pp. 135-136, p. 142, p. 144.

Rudolf Kolarsky (Filosoficky ustav AC CR [Philosophical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic], Prague) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Sblizovani antropocentrickych a neantropocentrickych koncepci filosofie zivotniho prostredi (Reconciling the Anthropocentric and Non-anthropocentric Concepts of the Environmental Philosophy)," Filosoficky Casopis (Philosophical Journal) 48(2000):717-729, citations on p. 725, p. 728.


Mark Rowlands (Philosophy, University of Ireland, Cork) cites Conserving Natural Value, on the concept of intrinsic value in nature. In The Environmental Crisis: Understanding the Value of Nature (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martins, 2000), citations on p. 12, p. 33, p. 35, p. 42, p. 44, p. 45, pp. 47-49, pp. 140-141, p. 155, pp. 179-181.

Finn Arler (Philosophy, Arhus University, Denmark) cites Conserving Natural Value for its taxonomy of values in nature. In "Aspects of Landscape or Nature Quality," Landscape Ecology 15(2000):291-302.

David Hulse and Robert Ribe (Landscape Architecture, University of Oregon, Eugene) cite Conserving Natural Value as an example of how "providing the theoretical and empirical basis for ... evaluations of ecological worth may require considerable advances in accepted ecological science and philosophy." In "Land Conversion and the Production of Wealth," Ecological Applications 10(no. 3, 2000):679-682, citation on p. 680, p. 682.

Peter Landres, Shannon Meyer (both: Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Missoula, MT), and Sue Matthews (Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Missoula, MT) cite Conserving Natural Value on wilderness values. In "The Wilderness Act and Fish Stocking: An Overview of Legislation, Judicial Interpretation, and Agency Implementation," Ecosystems 4(2002)287-295, citation on p. 288, p. 295.

David Pearce (Economics, University College, London and University of East Anglia) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "The Political Economy of the Global Environment," Scottish Journal of Political Economy 44(no. 4, 1997):462-483.

Robert J. Phillips (Business, Georgetown University) and Joel Reichart (Business, Fordham University) cite Conserving Natural Value on the values that exist in nature apart from humans. In "The Environment as a Stakeholder? A Fairness-Based Appproach," Journal of Business Ethics 23(2000):185-197, citation on p. 194, p. 197.

Christopher Southgate (Theology, University of Exeter, UK), Celia Deane-Drummond Theology, University College, Chester, UK), Paul D. Murray (Theology, Newman College, Birmingham, UK), Michael Robert Negus (Biology, Newman College, Birmingham), Lawrence Osborn (Astronomy, Ridley Hall, Cambridge. UK), Michael Poole (Education, King's College, London), Jacqui Stewart (Theology and Biology, University of Leeds, UK), and Fraser Watts (Theology and the Natural Sciences, University of Cambridge, UK) cite Conserving Natural Value on intrinsic value in nature. In God, Humanity and the Cosmos (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1999, and Harrisburg, PA: Trinity International, 1999), citation on p. 240, p. 425.

Deborah G. Martin (Geography, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) cites Conserving Natural Value for its theory of intrinsic value in nature. In "Transcending the Fixity of Jurisdictional Scale," Political Geography 18(1999):33-38, citation on p. 36, p. 38.

Christopher J. Preston (Philosophy, University of South Carolina) cites Conserving Natural Value for its taxonomy of values in nature. In Grounding Knowledge: Environmental Philosophy, Epistemology, and Place (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2003), citations on pp. 114-116, p. 144, p. 153.

Richard B. Primack (Biology, Boston University) and Philip J. Cafaro (Philosophy, Colorado State University) cite Conserving Natural Value. In "Environmental Ethics," pages 545-55 in Levin, Simon Asher, Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (San Diego: Academic Press [Harcourt], 2001).

Millennium Assessment Board, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: A Framework for Assessment (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2003) cites Conserving Natural Value for its arguments about intrinsic value in nature, citation on p. 143, p. 231. This work is a program launched by the U.N. Secretary-General and co-ordinated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Robert Chapman (Philosophy, Pace University) cites Conserving Natural Value and complains that Rolston inadequately distinguishes between wilderness and wildness. In "Crowded Solitude: Thoreau on Wildness," Environmental Philosophy 1 (no. 1, Spring 2004):58-72, citations on pp. 60-61, p. 67.

Tomislav Markus (Kroatisches Institut fur Geschichte, Zagreb, Croatia) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Ekoloska etika -- razvoj, mogucnosti, ogranicenja (Environmental Ethics, Development, Possibilities, Limitations)," Socijalna Ekologija (Journal for Environmental Thought and Sociological Research) (Zagreb, Croatia) 13 (no. 1, 2004):1-23, citations on p. 7 (in Croatian).

Lisa H. Sideris (School of Environment and Faculty of Religious Studies, McGill University, Montreal) cites Conserving Natural Value. In Environmental Ethics, Ecological Theology, and Natural Selection (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), citations passim.

Workineh Kelbessa (Philosophy, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practical Application," Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities 1 (no. 1, December 2003):63-88, citations passim, esp. p. 87.

David W. Kidner (Humanities, Philosophy, Nottingham Trent University, UK) cites Conserving Natural Value on the "sad truth" that human culture must sacrifice some nature. In "Industrialism and the Fragmentation of Temporal Structure," Environmental Ethics 26(2004):135-153, citation on pp. 146-146.

Terre Satterfield (Institute for Resources and Environmental Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver) cites Conserving Natural Value for its arguments about anthropocentric versus biocentric morality. In "Emotional Agency and Contentious Practice: Activist Disputes in Old-Growth Forests," Ethos (American Aanthropological Association) 32 (no. 2, 2004):233-256, citation on p. 248.

Roberto Peverelli cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Un'etica della terra. La riflessione filosofica di Holmes Rolston, III, [The Land Ethic: Philosophical Reflections of Holmes Rolston, III]," Aut Aut: rivista di folosofia e di cultura, Issue 316-317, July-October, 2003, pages 116-138, citations on pp. 124-130, and passim.

Cathy Driscoll (Management, Sobey School of Business, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia) and Mark Starik (Strategic Management and Public Policy, George Washington University School of Business and Public Management, Washington) cite Conserving Natural Value for its analysis of sustainability. In "The Primordial Stakeholder: Advancing the Conceptual Consideration of Stakeholder Status for the Natural Environment," Journal of Business Ethics 49(# 1, 2004):55-73, citation on p. 61, p. 72.

Ben A. Minteer, Elizabeth A. Corley, and Robert E. Manning (Human Dimensions of Biology Faculty, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe) cite Conserving Natural Value, disliking Rolston's emphasis on intrinsic value in nature, in favor of a more pragmatic and contextually applied environmental ethics. In "Environmental Ethics Beyond Principle? The Case for a Pragmatic Contextualism," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17(2004):131-156, citation on p. 134, p. 156.

Neil E. West (Forest, Range, and Wildlife Sciences, Utah State University, Logan) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Theoretical Underpinnings of Rangeland Monitoring," Arid Land Research and Management 17(no. 4, 2003):333-346, citation on p. 336, p. 345.

J. E. Eggleston (Philosophy and Religious Studies, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand) and S. S. Rixecker (Environment, Society and Design Division, Lincoln University, Christchurch, NZ) and G. J. Hickling (Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing) cite Conserving Natural Value for its philosophical development of Aldo Leopold's land ethic. In "The Role of Ethics in the Management of New Zealand's Wild Mammals," New Zealand Journal of Zoology 30(2003):361-376, p. 362, p. 375.

John Hart (Theology, Carroll College, Helena, Montana) cites Conserving Natural Value. Rolston offers "particularly helpful insights" "in the area of environmental ethics [that] affirm[s] the intrinsic value of all species." In "Salmon and Social Ethics: Relational Consciousness in the Web of Life," Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 22(2002):67-93, citations on p. 83, p. 84, p. 85, p. 86, p. 87.

J. Claude Evans (Philosophy, Philosophy, Environmental Studies, Washington University, St. Louis) cites Conserving Natural Value. In With Respect for Nature: Living as Part of the Natural World (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2005), citation on p. 269.

David Strong (Philosophy, Rocky Mountain College, Billings, Montana) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Environmental Ethics," in Carl Mitcham, ed., Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics (Farmington, MA: Macmillan Reference, USA, Thomson/Gale, 2005), vol. 2, pp. 653-661, citations on p. 657, p. 660.

Mark Woods (Philosophy, University of San Diego) cites Conserving Natural Value in "Ecological Restoration and the Renewal of Wildness and Freedom." Pages 170-188 in Thomas Heyd, ed., Recognizing the Autonomy of Nature: Theory and Practice (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005), citations on p. 173, p. 182, p. 184, p. 185, p. 187.

Andrew Light (Appplied Philosophy Group, New York University) cites Conserving Natural Value. In "Contemporary Environmental Ethics: From Metaethics to Public Philosophy," Metaphilosophy 33(no. 3, 2002):426-449, citations on p. 428, p. 432, p. 433, p. 449.


Theresa Satterfield (Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon) uses the taxonomy of values in nature in Conserving Natural Value to build a survey instrument polling for citizens' environmental values. In "In Search of Value Literacy: Suggestions for the Elicitation of Environmental Values," Environmental Values 10(2001):331-359, citations on pp. 340-350 passim, p. 358.

Deborah J. Shields (Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO) and E. T. Bartlett (Rangeland Ecosystem Science, Colorado State University) cite Conserving Natural Value for its discussion of types of natural value. In "Applicability of Montreal Process Criterion 6 - Long-term Socio-economic benefits - to Rangeland Sustainability," International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 9(no. 2, 2002):95-120, citations on p. 104, p. 108, p. 117.

Marti Kheel (Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA) has a chapter, "The Ecophilosophy of Holmes Rolston III" in Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective (Lanham. MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008), pp. 137-162, including citations of Rolston's Conserving Natural Value.

Dale Jamieson (Philosophy, New York University) cites Conserving Natural Value for its types of value in nature. In "The Rights of Animals and the Demands of Nature," Environmental Values 17(2008):181-199, citation on p. 188, p. 199.