PR Bibliography: Selected Research Articles, Book Chapters and Monographs, 1989-

Kirk Hallahan
Colorado State University
Updated September 2006
JPRR thru 18(3) - PRR thru 32(2)

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About This Bibliography

This bibliography is intended for graduate students in JT650 Public Relations Management and other courses. The list includes most of the principal research articles on public relations in published in scholarly journals and book compilations since 1989. In a few instances, significant articles published prior to 1989 are included. Suggestions for additional articles and corrections of citation errors are welcomed.

The subject matter is organized roughly according to weekly topics in the course. Although some articles might apply to more than one topic, titles are listed only once in the category where they are most applicable to the course.

Organization of the Online Document

Because of size, the Bibliography is being divided into three separate web documents. All categories are linked from the Index above. In order to print out the entire document (about 60 pages), use the links above to go top of Section One, Section Two and Section Three, respectively. Use your browser's Print function to print out that section. Users can also use the Print Preview function of web browsers to identify and then print only desired pages.

Selection of Articles

This bibliography does not include books, book chapters or articles in professionally oriented journals or trade publications. Students should be sure to consult these sources. For guidance, see the compiler's online

For ease of access, some categories include hyperlinks to sections of the PR Bibliography: Book for Graduate Research. However, not all books are cross-linked to this listing.

Many entries include the full title of the source; however, the full names of certain key journals and books are abbreviated to conserve space. Use the follow key to identify titles with shortened titles:



Convention Papers

Convention papers presented at meetings are not listed currently. Abstracts for papers presented since 1997 before the Public Relations Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication are available online at the AEJMC-PRD web site. Papers presented before the International Communication Association, the National Communciation Association and the Public Relations Society of America Educators Academy might be available in the future. Contact these organizations for details.


A few reports and monographs are included here. Information on the publisher is included with each listing for the convenience of users.

Using this Bibliography

Students interested in examining the extant research in the field are encouraged to use this bibliography as a launching point for their research.

Articles are listed in reverse chronological order within categories. Students should begin with the most recent articles on a particular topic and consult the citations to identify additional earlier relevant sources from within and outside of the public relations field.

In several instances when a publication produced a special issue on a particular topic, entries are designated with an asterisk and notation (* Special Issue) so students will be sure to examine other potentially relevant articles in the same issue.

This bibliography will be updated quarterly.

I. Overview


See books on History and Historically Significant PR Books

Mordecai Lee (2006)
The and fall of the Institute for Government Public Information Research, 1978-1981, PRR 32(2), 118-124.

Margalit Toledano (2006)
Challenging accounts: Public relations and a tale of two revolutions, PRR 31(4), 463-470.

Mordecai Lee (2005)
When government used publicity against itself: Toledo's Commission of Publicity and Efficiency, 1916-1975, PRR 31(1), 55-62.

Robert E. Brown (2004)
The propagation of awe: public relations, art and belief in Reformation Europe, PRR 30(4), 381-390.

William B. Anderson (2004)
"We can do it!" A study of the women's field army public relations efforts, PRR, 30(2), 187-196.

Shirley Harrison and Kevin Moloney (2004)
Comparing two public relations pioneers: American Ivy Lee and British John Elliot, PRR, 30(2), 205-216.

Dulcie M. Straughan (2004)
"Lift every voice and sing": the public relations efforts of the NAACP, 1960-1965, PRR, 30(1), 49-60

Mordecai Lee (2004)
A public relations program even Congress could love; Federal Information Centers, PRR, 30(1), 61-74

Robert E. Brown (2003)
A matter of chance: The emergence of probability and the rise of public relations, PRR (29(4), 385-399.

Kirk Hallahan (2003)
W.L. Mackenzie King: Rockefeller's other public relations counselor in Colorado, PRR 29(4), 410-415.

Mordecai Lee (2003)
The first federal public information service, 1920-133: at the US Bureau of Effieicny!, PRR 29(4), 415-426.

Kirk Hallahan (2002)
Ivy Lee and the Rockefellers' public relations response to the 1913-1914 Colorado coal strike, JPRR, 14(4), 265-315.

Mordecai Lee (2002)
The federal Public Relations Administration: history's near miss, PRR, 28(1), 87-98

Dulcie Straughan (2001)
Women's work: public relations efforts of the U.S. Children's Bureau to reduce infant and maternal mortality, 1912-1921, PRR, 27(3), 337-352.

William B. Anderson (2001)
The 1939 Major League Baseball centennial celebration: how Steve Hannagan & Associates helped tie business to Americans, PRR, 27(3), 353-366.

Rosaleen Smyth (2001)
The genesis of public relations in British colonial practice, PRR, 27(3), 149-162.

Josh Boyd (2001)
The rhetoric of arrogance: The public relations response of the Standard Oil Trust, PRR, 27(2), 163-178.

Karen S. Miller (2000)
U.S. public relations history: Knowledge and limitations. In Michael E. Roloff (Ed.), Communication Yearbook, vol. 24 (pp. 381-420). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Andy Piasecki (2000)
Blowing the Railroad Trumpet: Public Relations on the American Frontier, PRR 26(1), 53-66.

Marion K. Pinsdorf (1999)
Woodrow Wilson' PR : Wag the Hun, PRR 25(3), 309-330

Tim Ziaukas (1999)
Titanic and Public Relations: A Case Study, JPRR 11(2), 105-124.

Linda Childers Hon (1997)
"To redeem the soul of America': Public relations and the civil rights movement, JPRR 9(3), 163-212.

Bruce Pinkleton (1994)
The campaign of the Committee on Public Information: Its contributions to the history and evolution of public relations, JPRR 6(4), 229-240.

Stephen Ponder (1995) Popular propaganda: The Food Administration in World War I, J&MCQ, 72(3), 539-550. Karen S. Miller (1995)
National and local public relations campaigns during the 1946 steel strike, PRR 21(4), 305-324.

Ron Pearson (1992)
Perspectives on public relations history, RACA, 111-130.

Scott M. Cutlip (1991)
The last hurrah, PRR 17(4), 377-386.
Part of a special issue that recognized the contributions of one of America's leading researchers in public relations. See also: Donald K. Wright, A tribute to Scott Cutlip, Father of public relations education, 335-342; Mary Ann Ferguson, Presentation of the Paul J. Deutschmann award, 343-348; Harold Burson, Honor Scott Cutlip: Public relations pioneer, 349-356; and James E. Grunig, Public relations research: A legacy of Scott Cutlip, 357-376.

Scott M. Cutlip (1991)
An ill president and public relations: Before and after Jim Hagerty, PRR 17(4), 387-402.

Scott M. Cutlip (1991)
Pen Dudley's name finally disappears from the public relations marque, PRR 17(4), 403-412.

Ron Pearson (1990)
Perspectives on public relations history, PRR 16(3), 27-38

Ronald A. Fullerton (1990)
Art of public relations: U.S. department stores, 1876-1923, PRR 16(3), 68

Alan R. Raucher (1990)
Public relations in business: A business of public relations, PRR 16(3), 19-26.

Marvin N. Olasky (1987)
The development of corporate public relations, 1850-1930, Journalism Monographs, No. 102, April 1987.

Elmer Davis (1968)
Report to the president. Journalism Monographs, No. 7. Editor: Ronald T. Farrar, August 1968.

Portrayals and Perceptions of PR

Donald K. Wright (2005)
We have rights too: Examining the existence of professional prejudice and discrimination against public relations, PRR, 31(1), 101-110.

Coy Callison (2004)
The good, the bad and the ugly: Perceptions of public relations practitioners, JPRR, 16(4), 371-390.

Judith Scrimger and Trudie Richards (2003)
Public relations battles and wars: Journalistic cliches and the potential for resolution (Canada), PRR 29(4), 485-502.

Mordecai Lee (2001)
The image of the government flack: movie depictions of public relations in public administration, PRR, 27(3), 297-317.

Coy Callison (2001)
Do PR practitioners have a PR problem? The effect of associating a source with public relations and client-negative news on audience perception of credibility, JPPR 13(3), 219-234.

Karen S. Miller (1999)
Public relations in film and fiction, 1930 to 1995, JPRR 11(1), 3-28.

Public Relations Society of America, New York Chapter (1998)
How we see ourselves and the practice of public relations. An attitude survey of the New York Chapter, Public Relations Society of America. Monograph publised by PRSA-New York Chapter, New York.

Julie K. Henderson (1998)
Negative connotations in the use of the term "public relations" in the print media, PRR 24(1), 45-54.

Kevin L. Keenan (1996)
Network news coverage of public relations: An exploratory census of content, PRR 22(3), 215-232.

J. David Pincus, Tony Rimmer, Robert E. Rayfield and Fritz Cropp (1993)
Newspaper editor's perceptions of public relations: How business, news and sports editors differ, JPRR 5(1), 27-46.

Christopher Spicer (1993)
Images of public relations in the print media, JPRR 5(1), 47-61.

Research About Public Relations

Linda Aldoory (2006)
Preface {Special issue on public relations and communication management: Challenges for the Next Generation], JPRR 18(2), 91-92. **SPECIAL ISSUE

Robert L. Heath (2006)
Onward into more fog: Thoughts on public relations' research directions, JPRR, 18(2), 93-114.**

Larissa A. Grunig (2006)
Feminist phase analysis in public relations: Where have we been? Where do we need to be?, JPRR, 18(2), 115-140.**

Glen M. Broom (2006)
An open-system approach to building theory in public relations, JPRR, 18(2), 141-150.**

James E. Grunig (2006)
Furnishing the edifice: On going research on public relatios as a strategic management function, JPRR, 18(2), 151-176.**

Karla K. Gower (2006)
Public relations research at a crossroads, JPRR, 18(2), 177-190.**

Terence (Terry) Flynn (2006)
A delicate equilibrium: Balancing theory, practice and outcomes. JPRR, 18(2), 191-201.

Betteke van Ruler (2005)
Commentary: Professionals are from Venus, scholars are from Mars, PRR, 31(2), 159-174.

Robert E. Brown (2004)

Is public relations irrational? A literature review essay. PRR 30(4), 513-518.

Andrew Cutler (2004)
Methodical failure: The use of the case study method by public relations researchers, PRR, 30(3), 365-376.

Lynne M. Sallot, Lisa J. Lyon, Carolina Acosta-Alzur and Karyn Ogata Jones (2003)
From aardvark to zebra: A new millenium analysis of theory development in public relations academic journals, JPRR 15(1), 1-26.

Yorgo Pasadeos, R. Bruce Renfro and Mary Ann Hanily (1999)
Influential authors and works of public relations scholarly literature: A network of recent research, JPRR 11(1), 29-52.

Linda P. Morton and Li-Yun Lin (1995)
Content and citation analyses of Public Relations Review, PRR, 21(4), 337-350.

Mark P. McElreath and John M. Blamphin (1994)
Partial answers to priority research questions--and gaps--found in the Public Relations Society of America's Body of Knowledge, JPRR 6(2), 69-104.

James E. Grunig (1993)
Implications of public relations for other domains of communication, Journal of Communication 43(3), 164-187.

Yorgo Pasadeos and Bruce Renfro (1992)
A bibliometric analysis of public relations research, JPRR 4(3), 167-183.

Robert L. Heath (1991)
Public relations research and education: Agenda for the 1990s, PRR 17(2), 185-194.

James K. VanLeuven (1990)
Body of knowledge: Tomorrow's research agenda, PRR 16(2), 17-24. (* Special Issue)

Glen M. Broom, Mark S. Cox, Elizabeth A. Krueger and Carol M. Liebler (1989)
The gap between professional and research agendas in public relations journals, PRRA 1, 141-154.

Alternative Paradigms for Theory and Research

Go to sections on Systems Theory, Critical Perspectives, Rhetorical Theories

David McKee and Debashish Munshi (2005)
Tracking trends: Peripheral visions and public relations, PRR 31(4), 453-457.

Roslyn Petelin <2005)
Editing from the edge: De-territorializing public relations scholarship, PRR 31(4), 458-462.

Bryan H. Reber and Bruce K. Berger (2005)
Framing analysis of activist rhetoric: How the Sierra Club succeeds or fails at creating salient messages, PRR, 31(2), 185-196

Lynne M. Sallot, Lisa J. Lyon Carolina Acosta-Alzuru and Karyn Ogata Jones (2003)
From Aardvark to Zebra: A new millenium analysis of theory development in public relations academic journals, JPRR 15(1), 1-26.

Dejan Vercic, Betteke Van Ruler, Gerhard Butschi and Bertil Flodin (2001)
On the definition of public relations: A European view, PRR 27(4), 373-388.

Fritz Cropp and J. David Pincus (2001)
The mystery of public relations: Unraveling its past, unmasking its future, HOPR, 189-204.

George Cheney and Lars Thorger Christensen (2001)
Public relation as contested terrain: A critical response, HOPR, 167-182.

David McKie (2001)
Updating public relations: "New science," research paradigms and uneven developments, HOPR, 75-92.

Elizabeth L. Toth (2000)
Public relations and rhetoric: history, concepts, future. POPRR, 121-144.

Joep P. Cornelissen (2000)
Toward an understanding of the use of academic theories in public relations practice, PRR 26(3), 315-326.

Melvin L. Sharpe (2000)
Developing a behavioral paradigm for the performance of public relations, PRR 26(3), 345-362.

Elizabeth L. Toth and John V. Pavlik (2000)
Public relations values in the new millenium, JPRR 12(1), 1-3 (Introduction to a special issue on public relations values).

Larissa A. Grunig (1997)
Requisite variety in public relations research, PRRIP, 49-85.

Gunter Bentele (1997)
Public relations and reality: A contribution to a theory of public rleations, PRRIP, 89-109.

Henrick Rebel (1997) Towards a metaphorical theory of public relations, PRRIP, 199-224.

Carl Botan (1993)
Introduction to the paradigm struggle in public relations, PRR 19(2) 107-110. (* Special Issue)

W. Timothy Coombs (1993)
Philosophical underpinnings: Ramifications of a pluralist paradigm, PRR 19(2), 111-120. (* Special Issue)

James E. Grunig (1993)
From symbolic to behavioral relationships, PRR 19(2), 121-140. (* Special issue)

Robert L. Heath (1993)
A rhetorical approach to zones of meaning and organizational prerogatives, PRR 19(2) 141-156. (* Special Issue)

Pamela J. Creedon (1993)
Acknowledging the infrastructure: A critical feminist analysis of systems theory, PRR 19(2), 157-166. (* Special issue)

Laura Perkins Cottone(1993)
The pertrubing worldview of chaos: Implications for public relations, PRR 19(2),167-176. (* Special Issue)

James L. Everett (1993)
The ecological paradigm in public relations theory and practice, PRR 19(2), 177-186. (* Special Issue)

Vincent Hazelton and Craig Cutbirth (1993)
Public relations in Europe: An alternatie educational program, PRR 19(2), 187-196. (* Special Issue)

Kirk Hallahan (1993)
The paradigm struggle and public relations practice, PRR 19(2), 197-206. (* Special Issue)

James E. Grunig and Jon White (1992)
The effect of worldviews on public relations theory and practice, EXCEL, 31-64.

Elizabeth L. Toth (1992)
The case for pluralistic studies of public relations: Rhetorical, critical and systems perspectives, RACA 3-16.

Robert L. Heath (1992)
The wrangle in the marketplace: A rhetorical perspective on public relations, RACA, 37-64.

Marvin N. Olasky (1989)
The aborted debate within public relations: An approach through Kuhn's paradigm, PRRA 1, 87-96.

Hugh M. Culbertson (1989)
Breadth of perspective: An important concept for public relations, PRRA 1, 3-26.

Vincent Hazelton and Carl H. Botan (1989)
The role of theory in public relations, PRT, 3-16.

Carl H. Botan (1989)
Theory development in public relations, PRT, 99-110.

Keith E. Terry (1989)
Educator and practitioner differences in the role of theory in public relations, PRT, 281-298.

Bonita Dostal Neff (1989)
The emerging theoretical perspective in PR: An opportunity for communication departments, PRT, 159-172.

Critical Theory/PR's Impact on Society

See books on Cultural and Critical Perspectives.

Jacquie L'Etang (2005)
Critical public relations: Some reflections, PRR 31(4), 521-526.

Mohan J. Dutta-Bergman (2005)
Civil society and public relations: Not so civil after all, JPRR, 17(3), 267-289.

Patricia A. Curtin and T. Kenn Gaither (2005)
Privileging identity, difference and power: The circuit of culture as a basis for public relations theory, JPRR,17(2), 91-116 (* Special issue)

Alison Henderson (2005)
Activism in "paradise": Identity management in a public relations campaign against genetic engineering, JPRR, 17(2), 117-138 (* Special issue)

Donnalyn Pompper (2005)
"Difference" in public relations research. A case for introducing critical race theory, JPRR, 17(2), 139-170 (* Special issue)

Yoonhyeung Choi and Glen T. Cameron (2005)
Overcoming ethnocentrism: The role of identity in contingent practice of international public relations, JPRR, 17(2), 171-189 (* Special issue)

Mary Anne Moffitt (2005)
Comments on special issue public relations from the margins, JPRR, 17(1), 3-5. ** Special Issue

Bruce K. Berger (2005)
Power over, power with, and power to relations: Critical reflections on public relations, the dominant coalition and activism, JPRR 17(5-28)**

Frank Durham (2005)
Public relations as structuration: A prescriptive critique of the StarLink global food contamination case, JPRR 17(1), 29-48.

Judy Motion and C. Kay Weaver (2005)
A discourse perspective for critical public relations resarch: Life Sciences Network and the battle for truth, JPRR 17(1), 49-68.

Juliet Roper(2005)
Symmetrical communication: Excellent public relations or a strategy for hegemony?, JPRR 17(1), 69-86.

Elizabeth L. Toth (2002)
Postmodernism for modernist public relations: The cash value and application of critical research in public relations, PRR 28(3), 243-250.

Derina R. Holtzhauzen (2002)
Toward a postmodern research agenda for public relations, PRR 28(3), 251-264

Derina Holtzhausen and Rosina Voto (2002, forthcoming)
Resistance from the margins: The postmodern practitioner as organizational activist, JPRR, 14(1), 57-84.

Chritopher H. Spicer (2000)
Public relations in a democratic society: Value and values, JPRR 12(1), 115-130.

Wayne D. Woodward (2000)
Transactional philosophy as a basis for dialogue in public relations, JPRR 12(3), 255-275.

Derina R. Holtzhausen (2000)
Postmodern values in public relations, JPRR 12(1), 93-114.

Kathleen M. German (1995)
Critical theory in public relations inquiry: Future directions for analysis in a public relations context, INQUIRY, 279-294.

Robert L. Heath (1992)
Critical perspectives on public relations, RACA, 37-64.

Robert L. Heath (1992)
Visions of critical studies of public relations, RACA, 315-321.

Oscar H. Gandy (1992)
Public relations and public policy, The structuration of dominance in the information age, RACA, 131-164.

Charles Conrad (1992)
Corporate communication and control, RACA, 187-204.

Christopher Lasch (1990, Spring). Journalism, pulicity and the lost art of argument. Gannett Center Journal 4(2), 1-11.

II. Systems Theory, Organizational Reputation and Image

Boundary Spanning

Raymond N. Ankney and Patricia A. Curtin (2002)
Delineating (and delimiting) the boundary spanning role of the medical public relations officer, PRR 28(3), 229-241.

Jeffrey K. Springston and Greg Leichty (1994) Boundary spanning activities in public relations, Journalism Quarterly 71(3), 697-708.

Martha M. Lauzen and David M. Dozier (1992)
The missing link: The public relations manager role as mediator of organizational environments and power consequences for the function, JPRR 4(4), 205-220.

Models of Public Relations/Symmetric v. Asymmetric Communication v. Contingency Theory

Selina Lim, June Goh and Krishnamurthy Sriramesh (2005)
Applicability of generic prinicples of excellent public relations i a different cultural context; The case study of Singapore, 17(4), 315-340.

Juyan Zhang, Qi Qiu and Glen T. Cameron (2004)
A contingency approach to the Sino-U.S. conflict resolution, PRR 30(4), 391-400.

Jae Hwa Shin and Glen T. Cameron (2004)
Conflict measurements: analysis of simultaneous inclusion in roles, values, independence, attitudes and dyadic adjustment, PRR 30(4), 401-410.

Bey-Ling Sha (2004)
Noether's theorem: The science of symmetry and the law of conservation, JPRR, 16(4), 391-416.

Prabu David (2004)
Extending symmetry: Toward a convergence of professionalism, practice, and pragmatics in public relations, JPRR, 16(2), 185-211.

Cindy T. Christen (2004)
Predicting willingness to negotiate: The effects of perceived power and trustworthiness as in a model of strategic public relations, 16(3), 243-268.

Derina R. Holtzhausen, Barbara K. Peterson and Natalie T.J. Tindall (2003)
Exploding the myth of the symmetrical/asymmetrical dichotomy: Public relations models in the New South Africa, JPRR 15(4), 305-341.

Bryan H. Reber and Glen T. Cameron (2003)
Measuring contingencies: Using scales to measure public relations practitioner limits to accommodation, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80(2), 431-446.

Charles Marsh (2003)
Antecedents of two-way symmetry in classical Greek Rheotric: The rhetoric of Isocrates, PRR 29(3), 351-367

R.E. Brown (2003)
St. Paul as a public relations practitioner: a metatheoretical speculation on messianic communication and symmetry, PRR, 29(1), 1-12. Erratum with full corrected text appears in PRR, 29(2), pp. 227-240.

James E. Grunig (2001)
Two-way symmetrical public realtions: Past, present and future, HOPR, 11-30.

Priscilla Murphy (2000)
Symmetry, contingency, complexity: Accommodating uncertainty in public relations theory, PRR 26(4), 447-462.

Yi-Hui Huang (2000)
The personal influence model and Gao Guanxi in Taiwanese Chinese public relations, PRR 26(2), 219-236.

James E. Grunig (2000)
Collectivism, collaboration and societal corporatism as core professional values in public relations, JPRR 12(1), 23-48.

Amanda E. Cancel, Michael A. Mitrook and Glen T. Cameron (1999)
Testing the contingency theory of accommodation in public relations, PRR 25(2), 171-198.

Amanda E. Cancel, Glen T. Cameron, Lynne M. Sallot and Michael A. Mitrook (1997)
It depends: A contingency theory of accommodation in public relations, JPRR 9(1), 31-64.

Michael Karlberg (1996)
Remembering the public in public relations research: From theoretical to operational symmetry, JPRR 8(4), 263-278.

Greg Leichty and Jeff Springston (1993)
Reconsidering public relations models, PRR 19(4), 327-340.

James E. Grunig and Larissa A. Grunig (1992)
Models of public relations and communication, EXCEL, 285-326.

Joey Reagan, Janine Sumner ad Scott Hill (1992)
Using Grunig's indices to differentiate organizational public relations functions, Journalism Quarterly 69(1), 181-187.

David Martin and Michael Ryan (1992)
Use of research in one-way, two-way public relations environments, Southwestern mass communication journal, 7(1), 35.

Priscilla Murphy (1991)
The limits of symmetry: A game theory approach to symmetric and asymmetric public relations, PRRA 3, 115-133.

James E. Grunig & Larissa A. Grunig (1989)
Toward a theory of the public relations behavior of organizations: Review of a program of research, PRRA 1, 27-66.

Ron Pearson (1989)
Beyond ethical relativism in public relations: Coordination, roles and the idea of communication symmetry, PRRA 1, 67-86.

James E. Grunig (1989)
Symmetrical presuppositions as a framework for public relations theory, PRT, 17-46.

L. Childers (Hon) (1989, June)
Grunig's Asymmetrical and symmetrical models of public relations: Contrasting features and ethical dimensions. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 32(2), 86.

Organizational Theory/Change and Culture

Astrid Kersten (2005)
Crisis as usual: Orgaizational disfunction and public relations, PRR 31(4), 544-549

Greg Leichty (2003)
The cultural tribes of public relations, JPRR 15(4), 277-304.

Greg Leichty and Ede Warner (2001)
Cultural topoi: Implications for public relations, HOPR, 61-74.

James L. Everett (2001)
Public relations and the ecology of organizational change, HOPR, 311-320.

Maribeth S. Metzler (2001)
The centrality of organizational legigitmacy to public relations practice, HOPR, 321-334.

Dejan Vercic and James E. Grunig (2000)
The origins of public relations theory in economics and strategic management, POPPR, 9-58.

Toby McManus (2000)
Public relations: the cultural dimension. POPRR, 159-178.

Bruce K. Berger (1999)
The Halcion Affair: Public relations and the construction of ideological world view, JPRR 11(3), 185-204.

Betty Farmer, John W. Slater and Kathleen S. Wright (1998)
The role of communication in achieving shared vision under new organizational leadership, JPRR 10(4), 219-236.

Christina P. Deatherage and Vincent Hazelton (1998)
Effects of organizational worldviews on the practice of public relations: A test of the theory of public relations excellence. JPRR 10(1), 57-71.

K. Sriramesh, James E. Grunig and David M. Dozier (1996)
Observation and measurement of two dimensions of organizational culture and their relationship to public relations, JPRR 8(4), 229-262.

K. Sriramesh, James E. Grunig and Jody Buffington (1992)
Corporate culture and public relations, EXCEL, 577-596.

K. Sriramesh and Jon White (1992)
Societal culture and public relations, EXCEL, 597-616.

Kathryn R. Theus (1991)
Organizational ideology, structure and communication efficacy: A causal analysis, PRRA 3, 133-150.

James E. Grunig (1990)
Organizational culture and ethnoecology in public relations theory and practice, PRRA 2, 235-252.

Impression Management/Organizational Reputation and Image

Granville King (2006)
Image restoration: An examination of the response strategies used by Brown and Williamson after allegations of wrongdoing, PRR 32(2), 131-136.

William L. Benoit(2006)
Image repair in President Bush's April 2004 news conference, PRR 32(2), 137-143.

Kevin Maloney (2005)
Trust and public relations: Center and edge, PRR 31(4), 550-555.

Suzanne Holmstrom <2005)
Reframing public relations: The evolution of a reflective paradigm for organizational legitimation, PRR 31(4), 497-504.

Juliet Roper (2005)
Organisational identities, identification and positioning: Learning from political fields, PRR 31(1), 139-148.

Annte L. M. van den Bosch, Menno D.T. de Jong and Wim J.L. Elving (2004)
Managing corporate visual identity: use and effects or organizational measures to support a consistent self-presentation, PRR, 30(2), 225-234.

Marie E. Len-Rios and William L. Benoit (2004)
Gary Condit's image repair strategies: Determined denial and differentiation, PRR, 30(1), 95-106.

Dong-Jin Park and Bruce K. Berger (2004)
The presentation of CEOs in the press, 1990-2000: Increasing salience, positive valence and a focus competency and personal dimensions of image, JPRR, 16(1), 93-125.

D.F. Treadwell (2003)
Can your institution's name influence constituent response? An initial assessment of consumer response to college names. PRR, 29(2), 185-198.

Lynne M. Sallot (2002)
What the public thinks about public relations: An impression management experiment, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 79(2), 150-.

Marion K. Pinsdorf (2002)
Greater dead heroes than live husbands: Widows as image makers, PRR 28(3), 283-299.

James G. Hutton, Michael B. Goodman, Jill B. Alexander and Christina M. Genest (2000)
Reputation management: the new face of corporate public relations? PRR, 27(3), 247-262.

Mary Ann Moffitt (2001)
Using the collapse model of corporate image for campaign message design. HOPR, 347-356.

Peggy Hooghiemstra (2000)
Corporate communication and impression management--New perspectives why companies engage in corporate social reporting, Journal of Business Ethics, 27, 55-68.

Judy Motion (1999)
Personal public relations: Identity as a public relations commodity, PRR 25(4), 465-480.

William L. Benoit and Susan L. Brison (1999)
Queen Elizabeth's image repair discourse: Insenstive Royal or Compassionate Queen?, PRR 25(2), 145-156.

Lisa Lyon and Glen T. Cameron (1998)
Fess up or stonewall? An experimental test of prior reputation and response style in the face of negative news coverage. Web Journal of Mass Communication, 1(4), September. Retrieve

Rachel Harris Caillouet and Myria W. Allen (1996)
Impression management strategies employees use when discussing their organization's public image, JPRR 8(4), 211-228.

Jeffrey L. Courtright (1995)
"I am a Scientologist": The image management of identity, INQUIRY, 69-84.

Mary Ann Moffitt (1994)
A cultural studies perceptive toward understanding corporate image: A case study of State Farm Insurance, JPRR 6(1), 40-67.

Denise M. Bostdorff and Steven L. Vibbert (1994)
Values advocacy: Enhancing organizational images, deflecting public criticism and grounding future arguments, PRR 20(2), 141-158.

Mary Anne Moffitt (1994)
Collapsing and integrating concepts of 'public' and 'image' into a new theory, PRR 20(2), 159-170.

Kathryn T. Theus (1993)
Academic reputations: The process of formation and decay, PRR 19(3), 277-291.

Horst Avenarius (1993)
Introduction: Image and public relations practice, JPRR 5(2), 65-71 (* Special Issue)

Carl Botan (1993)
A human nature approach to image and ethics in international public relations, JPRR 5(2) 71-82. (*Special Issue)

Gunther Haerich (1993)
Images and strategic corporate and marketing planning, JPRR 5(2), 83-94. (* Special Issue)

Larissa A. Grunig (1993)
Images and symbolic leadership: Using focus group research to bridge the gaps, JPRR 5(2), 95-126. (* Special Issue)

Rise J. Samra (1993)
The image of the physician: A rhetorical perspective, PRR 19(4), 341-348.

L.A Swanson (1987)
The persuasive effect of volunteering negative information in advertising, International Journal of Advertising (UK), 6, 237-248.

Charles Frombrun and Mark Shanley (1990)
What's in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy. Academy of Management Journal 33(2), 233-258.

III. Publics, Public Opinion and Activism

Nature of Publics

Debashish Munshi and Priya Kurian <2005)
Imperializing spin cycles: A postcolonial look at public relations, greenwashing and the separation of publics, PRR 31(4), 513-520.

Richard Jones (2002)
Challenges to the notion of publics in public relations: implications of the risk society for the discipline, PRR, 28(1), 49-62.

Constance Chay-Nemeth (2001)
Revisiting publics: A critical archaeology of publics in the Thai HIV/AIDS issue, JPRR 13(2), 127-162.

Shirley Leitch and David Neilson (2001)
Bringing publics into public relations: New theoretical frameworks for the practice, HOPR, 127-138.

Gabriel M. Vasquez and Maureen Taylor (2001)
Research perspectives on the 'the public," HOPR, 139-154.

Kirk Hallahan (2000)
Inactive publics: The forgotten publics in public relations, PRR, 26(4), 499-515.

Carl H. Botan and Francisco Soto (1998)
A semiotic approach to internal functioning of publics: Implications for strategic communications and public relations, PRR 24(1), 21-44.

James E. Grunig (1992)
Strategic management, publics and issues, EXCEL, 117-158.

Mary Anne Moffitt (1992)
Bringing critical theory and ethical considerations to definitions of a "public." PRR 18(1), 17-30.

Jeffrey K. Springston and Joann Keyton (2001)
Public relations and field dynamics, HOPR, 115-126.

Jeffrey K. Springston, Joann Keyton, Greg R. Leichty and Janet Metzger (1992)
Field dynamics and public relations: Toward the management of multiple publics, JPRR 4(2), 81-100.

Marcia Prior-Miller (1989)
Four major social scientific theories and their value to the public relations relations researcher, PRT, 67-82.

Priscilla Murphy (1989)
Game theory as a paradigm for the public relations process, PRT, 173-193.

Relationship Building/Management

Samsup Jo (2006)
Measurement of organization-public relationships: Validation of measurement using a manufacturer-retailer relationship, JPRR, 18(3), 225-248.

Steven D. Bruning, Shea McGrew and Mark Cooper (2006)
Town-gown relatioships: Exploring university-community engagement from the perspective of community members, PRR, 32(2), 125-130. Exploring types of organizational-public relationships and their implications for relationship management in public relations, JPRR 17(4), 393-425.

Maureen Taylor and Marya Doerfel (2005)
Another dimension of explicating relationships: Measuring inter-organizational linkages, PRR, 31(1), 121-130

Stephen D. Bruning, Allison Langenhop and Kimberly A. Green (2004)
Examining city-resident relationships: Linking community relations, relationship building activities and satisfaction evaluations, PRR, 30(3), 335-336.

Elaine Steyn, Arnold S. de Beer, T.F.J. (Derik) Steyn and Wadim N. Schreiner
Enron and Saambou Bank in South Africa: A case study of insufficient relationship management, PRR, 30(1), 75-86.

Stephen D. Bruning and Tara Galloway (2003)
Expanding the organization-ublic relationship scale: Exploring the role that structural and personal commitment play in organization-public relations, PRR, 29(3), 309-320.

John A. Ledingham (2003)
Explicaitng relationship management as general theory of public relations, JPRR, 15(2), 181-198.

Yungwook Kim (2002)
Searching for the organizational-public relationship. A valid and reliable instrument. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 78(4), 799-815.

Steven D. Bruning (2002)
Relationship building as a retention strategy: linking relationship attitudes and satisfaction evaluations to behavioral outcomes, PRR, 28(1), 39-48.

Yi-Hui Huang (2001)
Values of public relations: Effects of organization-public relationships mediating conflict resolution, JPRR, 13(4), 265-302.

Yi-Hui Huang (2001)
OPRA: A cross-cultural, multiple-item scale for measuring organization-public relationships, JPRR, 13(1), 61-90.
John A. Ledingham (2001)
Government-community relationships: extending the relational theory of public relations, PRR, 27(3), 285-296.

John A. Ledingham and Stephen D. Bruning (2000)
Introduction: Background and current trends in the study of relationship management, PRRM, xi.

Glen M. Broom, Shawna Casey and James Ritchey (2000)
Concept and theory of organization-public relationships, PRRM, 3-22. Update of 1997 article listed below.

James E. Grunig and Yi-Hui (Christine) Huang (2000)
From organziational effectiveness to relationship indicators: Antecedents of relationships, public relations strategies and relationship outcomes, PRRM, 23-54.

John A. Ledingham and Stephen D. Bruning (2000)
A longitudinal study organization-public relationship dimensions: Defining the role of communication in the practice of relationship management, PRRM, 55-70.

Stephen D. Bruning and John A. Ledingham (2000)
Perceptions of relationships and evaluations of satisfaction: An exploration of interaction, PRR 26(1), 85-96.

Stephen D. Bruning and John A. Ledingham (2000)
Organization and key public relationships: Testing the influence of the relationship dimension in a business to business context, PRRM, 159-174.

Linda Childers Hon and James E. Grunig (1999)
Guidelines for measuring relationships in public relations. Monograph published by The Institute for Public Relations, Gainesville, Fla. 32611-8400.

Stephen D. Bruning and John D. Ledingham (1999)
Relationships between organizations and publics: Development of a multi-dimensional organization-public relationship scale. PRR 25(2), 157-170.

John A. Ledingham, Stephen D. Brunig & Laurie J. Wilson (1999)
Time as an indicator of the perceptions and behavior of members of a key public: Monitoring and predicting organization-public relationships, JPRR 11(2), 167-184.

John A. Ledingham and Stephen D. Bruning (1998)
Relationship management in public relations: Dimensions of an organization-public relationship, PRR 24(1), 55-66.

Glen M. Groom, Shawna Casey and James Ritchey (1997)
Toward a concept and theory of organization-public relationships, JPRR 9(2), 83-98.

Laurie J. Wilson (1994)
Excellent companies and coalition-building among the Fortune 500: A value and relationship-based theory, PRR 20(4), 333-344.

Community Building

Andi Stein (2006)
Employee communications and community: An exploratory study, JPRR 18(3), 249-264.

Kirk Hallahan (2004)
Community as the framework for public relations theory and practice. In Pamela Kalbfleish (Ed.), Communication Yearbook, 28 (pp. 233-279). Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum.

Roy V. Leeper and Kathie A. Leeper (2001)
Public relations as "practice": Applying the theory of Alasdair MacIntyre, PRR, 27(4), 461-474.

Kenneth Starck and Dean Kruckeberg (2001)
Public relations and community: A reconstructed theory revisited, HOPR, 31-50.

Roy Leeper (2001)
In search of a metatheory for public relations: An argument for communitarianism, HOPR, 93-104.

Laurie J. Wilson (2001)
Relationships within communities: Public relations for the new century, HOPR, 521-526.

John A. Ledingham and Stephen D. Bruning <2001)
Managing community relationships to maximize mutual bnefit: Doing well by doing good, HOPR, 527-534.

Public Opinion Processes

See books on Persausion, Public Opinion, and Propaganda

Elizabeth Dougall <2005>
Revelations of an ecological perspective: Issues, inertia and the public opinion environment of organizational public populations, PRR 31(4), 534-543.

T. Walters, L.M. Walters and Roger Gray (1996) Agenda-building in the 1992 presidential campaign, PRR 22(1), 9-24.

James K. VanLeuven and Michael D. Slater (1991)
How publics, public relations and the media shape the public opinion process, PRRA 3, 165-178.

Scott M. Cutlip (1989)
The manufacture of public opinion, Gannett Center Journal 3(2), 105-116.


Tiffany Derville (2005)
Radical activist tactics: Overturning public relations conceptualizations, PRR 31(4), 527-533.

Maureen Taylor, Gabriel M. Vasquez and John Doorley (2003)
Merck and AIDS activists: Engagement as a framework for extending issues, PRR 29(3), 257-270.

Katherine A. McComas (2003)
Trivial pursuits: Participant views of public meetings, JPRR, 15(2), 91-116.

John E. Guiniven (2002)
Dealing with activism in Canada: An ideal cultural fit for the two-way symmetrical public relations model, PRR 28(4), 393-402.

Rachael Kovacs (2001)
Relationship building as integral to British activism: Its impact on accountability in broadcasting, PRR, 27(4), 421-436.

Michael F. Smith and Denise P. Ferguson (2001)
Activism, HOPR, 291-300

Kenneth D. Plowman, William G. Briggs and Yi-Hui Huang (2001)
Public relations and conflict resolution, HOPR, 301-310.

David M. Dozier and Martha M. Lauzen (2000)
Liberating the intellectual domain from the practice: Public relations, activism and the role of the scholar, JPRR 12(1), 3-22.

Julie L. Andsager
How interest groups attempt to shape public opinion with competing news frames, J&MCQ, 77(3), 577-592.

Keith Michael Hearit (1999)
Newsgroups, activist publics, and corporate apologia: The case of Intel and its Pentium chip, PRR 25(3), 291-308

Larissa A. Grunig (1992)
Activism: How it limits the effectiveness of organizations and how excellent public relations departments respond, EXCEL, 503-530.

Priscilla Murphy and Juliet Dee (1992)
DuPont and Greenpeace: The dynamics of conflict between corporations and activists, JPRR 4(1), 3-20.

Philip Lesly (1992)
Coping with opposition groups, PRR 18(4), 325-334.

Charles T. Salmon and Hayg Oshagan (1990)
Community size, perceptions of majority opinion and opinion expression, PRRA 2, 157-173.

Robert G. Picard (1989)
Press relations of terrorist organizations, PRR 15(4), 12-23.

Situational Theory

James E. Grunig (1997)
A situational theory of publics: conceptualhistory, recent challenges and new research, PRRIP, 3-48.

Ann Marie Major (1993) Environmental concern and situational communication theory:
Implications for communicating with environmental publics, JPRR 5(4), 251-268.

Gabriel M. Vasquez (1993)
A homo narran paradigm for public relations: Combining Bohrmann's symbolic convergence theory and Grunig's situational theory of publics, JPRR 5(3), 201-216.

Peter K. Hamilton (1992)
Grunig's situational theory: A replication, application and extension, JPRR 4(3), 123-150.

Deborah S. Anderson (1992)
Identifying and responding to activist publics: A case study. JPRR 4(3), 151-166.

James E. Grunig (1989)
Sierra club study shows who becomes activists, PRR 15(3), 3-24.

IV. Issues Management

See books on Issues/Crisis Management

Juliet Roper and Margalit Toledano <2005)
Taking in the view from the edge: Issues management recontextualized, PRR 31(4), 479-485.

Kenneth D. Plowman (2005)
Conflict, strategic management, and public relations, PRR, 31(1), 131-138.

Bruce K. Berger (2001)
Private issues and public policy: Locating the corporate agenda in agenda-setting theory, JPPR 13(2), 61-126.

Cornelius B. Pratt (2001)
Issues management: The paradox of the 40-year U.S. tobacco wars, HOPR, 335-346.

Kirk Hallahan (2001)
The dynamics of issues activation and response: An issues processes model, JPRR, 13(1), 27-59.

Janet A. Bridges and Richard Alan Nelson (2000)
Issues management: A relational perspective, PRRM, 95-116.

Ann Marie Major (2000)
Correlates of accuracy and inaccuracy in the perception of the climate of opinion for four environmental issues, J&MCQ, 77(2), 223-241.

Christopher Reynolds (1997)
Issue management and the Australian gun debate, PRR 23(4), 343-360.

Martha M. Lauzen (1997)
Understanding the relation between public relations and issues management, JPRR 9(1), 65-82.

Keith Michael Hearit (1997)
On the use of transcendence as a an apologia strategy: The case of Johnson Controls and its fetal protection policy. PRR 23(3), 217-232.

Priscilla Murphy and Juliet Dee (1996)
Reconciling the preferences of environmental activists and corporate policymakers, JPRR 8(1), 1-34.

Gabriel M. Vasquez (1996)
Public relations as negotiation: An issue development perspective, JPRR 8(1), 57-77.

Priscilla Murphy (1996)
Chaos theory as a model for managing issues and crises, PRR 22(2), 95-114.

Martha M. Lauzen (1995)
Public relations manager involvement in strategic issue diagnosis, PRR 21(4), 287-304.

Philip Gaunt and Jeff Ollenburger (1995)
Issues management revisited: A tool that deserves another look, PRR 21(3), 199-210.

Kenneth D. Plowman, Cynthia ReVelle, Shira Meirovich, Martha Pien, Richard Stemple, Virginia Sheng and Karen Fay (1995)
Walgreens: A study in health care issues and conflict resolution, JPRR 7(4), 231-258.

Martha M. Lauzen and David M. Dozier (1994)
Issues management mediation of linkages between environmental complexity and management of the public relations function, JPRR 6(3), 163-184.

Dan Berkowitz and Kirk Turmire (1994)
Community relations and issues management: An issue orientation approach to segmenting publics, JPRR 6(2), 105-124.

W. Timothy Coombs (1992)
The failure of the task force on food assistance; A case study of the role of legitimacy in issue management, JPRR 4(2), 101-122.

Robert L. Heath (1990)
Corporate issues management: Theoretical underpinnings and research foundations, PRRA 2, 29-66.

Robert L. Heath and William Douglas (1990)
Involvement: A key variable in people's reaction to public policy issues, PRRA 2, 193-204.

Brad E. Hainsworth (1990)
Issues management: An overview, PRR 16(1), 3-6 (* Special Issue)

Robert L. Heath and Kenneth Cousino (1990)
Issues management: End of first decade progress report, PRR 16(1), 6-18 (* Special Issue)

Raymond P. Ewing (1990)
Moving from micro to macro issues management, PRR 16(1), 19-24 (* Special Issue)

Richard Alan Nelson (1990)
Bias versus fairness: The social utility of issues management, PRR 16(1), 25-32.

Brad E. Hainsworth (1990)
The distribution of advantages and disadvantages, PRR 16(1), 33-39 (* Special Issue)

Laurie J. Wilson (1990)
Corporate issues management: An international view, PRR 16(1), 40-51 (* Special Issue)

Daniel A. Stout (1990)
Roots of issues management: Internal process of corporate advocacy, PRR 16(1), 52-62.

George Cheney and Steven L. Vibbert (1987)
Corporate discourse: public relations and issues management. in Fredric M. Jablin, Linda L. Putnam, Karlene H. Roberts and Lyman W. Porter, eds., Handbook of Organizational Communication. An Interdisciplinary Perspective, pp. 165-194. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

V. Crisis Management

See books on Issues/Crisis Management

David S. DeVries and Kathy R. Fitzpatrick (2006)
Defining the characteristics of a lingering crisis: Lessons from the National Zoo, PRR 32(2), 160-167.

Betty Kaman Lee (2005)
Hong Kong consumers' evaluation in an airline crash: A path model analysis, JPRR 17(4), 363-392.

Lisa Taylor (2005)
Toward a postmodern understanding of crisis communication, PRR 31(4), 566-571.

Astrid Kersten and Mohammed Sidky (2005)
Re-aligning rationality: Crisis management and prisoner abuses in Iraq, PRR 31(4), 471-478.

Laura M. Arpan and David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen (2005)
Stealing thunder: Analysis of the effects of proactive disclosure of crisis information, PRR, 31(3), 425-433.

C.T. Maier (2005)
Weathering the storm: Hauser's Vernacular Voices, public relations and the Roman Catholic Church's sexual abuse scandal, PRR, 31(2), 219-228. (* Special issue)

Yi-Hui Huang, Ying-Hsuan Lin and Shih-Hein Su (2005) Crisis communictive strategies in Taiwan: Catgory, continuum and cultural implication, PRR, 31(2), 229-238.

Cindy T. Christen (2005)
The restructuring and reengineering of AT&T: Analysis of public relations crisis using organizational theory, PRR 31(2), 239-252.

Ryan M. Martin and Lois B. Boynton (2005)
From liftoff to landing: NASA's crisis communications and resulting coverage following the Challenger and Columbia tragedies, PRR, 31(2), 253-262.

James Kaufman (2005)
Lost in space: A critique of NASA's crisis communications in the Columbia disaster, PRR, 31(2), 263-276.

William B. Anderson (2004)
Major League Baseball under investigation: How the industry used public relations to promote its past to save its present, PRR 30(4), 439-446.

James S. O'Rourke (2004)
Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc.: The fall of an American icon, PRR 30(4), 447-458.

Keith Michael Hearit and Jennifer Brown (2004)
Merrill Lynch: corporate apologia and business fraud, PRR 30(4), 459-466.

W. Timothy Coombs (2004)
West Pharmaceutical's explosion: structuring crisis discourse knowledge, PRR 30(4), 467-474.

Kurt Wise (2004)
Attribution versus compassion: The city of Chicago's response to the E2 crisis, PRR, 30(3), 347-356.

Lisa Lyon and Glen T. Cameron (2004)
A relational approach examining the interplay of prior reputation and immediate response to a crisis,JPRR, 16(3), 213-242.

Kimberly Joy Englehardt, Lynne M. Sallot and Jeffrey K. Springston (2004)
Compassion without blame: Testing the accident decision flow chart with the crash of ValuJet Flight 592, JPRR, 16(2), 127-156.

Barry Richard (2004)
Terrorism and public relations, PRR, 30(2), 169-177.

Kristina Drumheller and William L. Benoit (2004)
USS Greeneville collides with Japan's Ehime Maru: Cultural issues in image repair discourse, PRR, 30(2), 177-186. Joe R. Downing (2004)
American Airlines' use of mediated employee channels after the 9/11 attacks, PRR, 30(1), 37-48.

Clark F. Greer and Kurt D. Moreland (2003)
Uited Airlines' and American Airlines' online crisis communication following the September terrorist attacks, PRR, 29(4), 427-442.

Katherine N. Kinnick (2003)
How corporate America grieves: Responses to September 11 in public relations advertising, PRR, 29(4), 443-460.

Kurt Wise (2003)
The Oxford Incident: Organizational culture's role in an anthrax crisis. PRR, 29(4), 461-473.

Brenda J. Wrigley, Charles T. Salmon and Hyun Soon Park (2003)
Crisis management planning and the threat of bioterrorism, PRR, 29(3), 281-290.

Laura M. Arpan and Donnalyn Pompper (2003)
Stormy weather: Testing "stealing thunder" as a crisis communication strategy to improve communication flow between organizations and journalists, PRR, 29(3), 291-309.

Matthew W. Seeger (2002)
Chaos and crisis: Proposition for a general theory of crisis communication, PRR 28(4), 329-337.

W. Timothy Coombs (2002)
Deep and surface threats: Conceptual and practical implications for "crisis" vs. problem, PRR 28(4), 339-345.

Robert R. Ulmer and Timothy L. Sellnow (2002)
Crisis management and the discourse of renewal: Understanding the potential for positive outcomes of crises, PRR 28(4), 361-365.

Joseph R. Blaney, William L. Benoit and LeAnn M. Brazeal (2002) Nicholas DiFonzo and Prashant Bordia (2002)
Corporate rumor activity, belief and accuracy, PRR, 28(1), 1-20.

Oyvind Ihlen (2002)
Defending the Mercedes A-Class: Combining and changing crisis-response strategies, JPRR, 14(3), 185-206.

James Kauffman (2001)
A successful failure: NASA's crisis communications regarding Apollo 13, PRR, 27(4), 437-448.

W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay (2001)
An extended examination of the crisis situations: A fasuion of relational management and symbolic approaches, JPRR, 13(4), 321-340.

Elizabeth A. Hoger and Lisa L. Swern (2000)
Public relations and the law in crisis mode: Texaco's initial reaction to incriminating tapes, PRR, 26(4), 425-446.

Bolanle A. Olanrian and David E. Williams (2001)
Anticipatory model of crisis management: A vigilant response to technological crises, HOPR, 487-500.

Matthew W. Seeger, Timothy L. Sellow and Robert R. Ulmer (2001)
Public relations and crisis communication: Organizing and chaos, HOPR, 155-166.

Keith Michael Hearit (2001)
Corporate apologia: When an organization speaks in defense of itself, HOPR, 501-512.

Gail F. Baker (2001)
Race and reputation: Restoring image beyond the crisis, HOPR, 513-520.

Josh Boyd (2000)
Actional legitimation: No crisis necessary, JPPR 12(4), 341-353.

W. Timothy Coombs (2000)
Crisis management: advantages of a relational perspective, PRRM, 73-94.

John M. Penrose (2000)
The role of perception in crisis planning, PRR 26(2), 155-172.

Nicholas DiFonzo and Prashant Bordia (2000)
How top PR professionals handle hearsay: Corporate rumors, their effects, and strategies to manage them, PRR 26(2), 173-192.

James Kauffman (1999)
Adding fuel to the fire: NASA's crisis communications regarding Apoollo 1, PRR 25(4), 421-432.

Peggy Simcic Bronn and Erik L. Olson (1999)
Mapping the strategic thinking of public relations managers in a crisis situation: A illustrative example using conjoint analysis, PRR 25(3), 351-368.

Jaesub Lee, Stella M. Jares and Robert L. Heath (1999)
Decision-making encroachment and cooperative relationships between public rleations and legal counselors in the management of organizational crisis, JPRR, 11(3), 243-270.

W. Timothy Coombs (1999)
Information and compassion in crisis responses: A test of their effects, JPRR 11(2), 125-142

Matthew W. Seeger, Timothy L. Sellnow and Robert R. Ulmer (1998)
Communication organization and crisis, Communication Yearbook 21, 231-275.

W. Timothy Coombs (1998)
An analytic framework for crisis situations: Better response from a better understanding of the situation, JPRR 177-192.

Alfonso Gonzalez-Herrero and Cornelius B. Pratt (1998)
Marketing crises in tourism: Communication strategies in the United States and Spain, PRR 24(1), 83-98.

Julie Andsager and Leiott Smiley (1998)
Evaluating the public information: Shaping news coverage of the silicone implant controversy, PRR 24(2), 183-202.

Charmine Hartel, Janet R. McColl-Kennedy, and Lyn McDonald (1998)
Incorporating attributional theory and the theory of reasoned action within an affective events theory framework to produce a contingency predictive model of consumer reactions to organizational mishaps, Advances in Consumer Research, 25, 428-432.

James Kauffman (1997)
NASA in crisis: The space agency's public relations efforts regarding the Hubble space telescope, 1-10.

William L. Benoit (1997)
Image repair discourse and crisis communication, PRR 23(2), 177-186.

W. Timothy Coombs (1995)
Choosing the right words: The development of guidelines for the selection of "appropriate" crisis-response strategies, Management Communication Quarterly 8(4), 447-476.

Keith Michael Hearit (1995)
From "We didn't do it" to "It's not our fault": The use of apologia in public relations crises, INQUIRY, 117-134.

W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holliday (1996)
Communication and attributions in a crisis: An experimental study in crisis communication, JPRR 8(4), 279-295.

Alfonso Gonzalez-Herrero and Cornelius B. Pratt (1996)
An integrated symmetrical model for crisis-communications management, JPRR 8(2), 79-106.

Keith Michael Hearit (1996)
The use of counter-attack in apologetic public relations crises: The case of General Motors vs. Dateline NBC, PRR 22(3), 233-248.

Kathy Fitzpatrick and Maureen Shubow Rubin (1995)
Public relations vs. legal strategies in organizational crisis decisions, PRR 21(1), 21-34.

David W. Guth (1995)
Organizational crisis experience and public relations roles, PRR 21(2), 123-136.

David E. Williams and Bolanle A. Olaniran (1994)
Exxon's decision-making flaws: The hypervigilant response to the Valdez grounding, PRR 20(1), 5-18.

Keith Michael Hearit (1994)
Apologies and public relations crises at Chrysler, Toshiba and Volvo, PRR, 20(2), 113-126.

Philip Lesly (1991)
Public relations in the turbulent new human climate, PRR 17(1), 1-8. (* Special Issue)

William J. Small (1991)
Exxon Valdez: How to spend billions and still get a black eye, PRR 17(1), 9-26. (* Special Issue)

Samuel Coad Dyer, Jr., M. Mark Miller and Jeff Boone (1991)
Wire service coverage of the Exxon Valdez crisis, PRR 17(1), 27-36. (* Special Issue)

Marian K. Pinsdorf (1991)
Flying different skies: How different cultures respond to airline disasters, PRR 17(1), 37-56. (* Special Issue)

Falguni Sen and William G. Egelhoff (1991)
Six years and counting: Learning from crisis management at Bhopal, PRR 17(1), 69-84.(* Special Issue)

N.M. Somerick (1989, June 1)
Using the Phase III public relations professional to improve corporate communication and to prevent crises. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 32(2), p. 101

Scott M. Cutlip (1989)
A public relations footnote to the Pete Rose Affair, PRR 15(4), 46-48.

VI. Organizational Issues

See books on PR Management

Definition of the function; PR as communication management

Betteke van Ruler (2004)
The communication grid: An introduction of a model of four communication strategies, PRR, 30(2), 123-144.

John F. Budd, Jr. (2003)
Public relations is the architect of its future: Counsel or courtier? Pros offer opinions, PRR, 29(4), 375-384.

Betteke van Ruler and Rob de Lange (2003)
Barriers to communication management in the executive suite, PRR, 29(2), 145-158.

James G. Hutton (1999)
The definition, dimensions and domain of public relations, PRR 25(2), 199-214.

Organizational Structure--Effects on Practice

David M. Dozier and Larissa A. Grunig (1992)
The organization of the public relations function, EXCEL, 395-418.

Larissa A. Grunig (1992)
How public relations/communication departments should adapt to the structure and environment of an organization..and what they actually do, EXCEL, 467-482.

James K. VanLeuven (1991)
Corporate organization strategies and the scope of public relations departments, PRR 17(3), 279-292. (* Special Issue on Public Relations and Marketing)

Larissa A. Grunig (1989)
Horizontal structure in public relations: An exploratory study of departmental differentiation, PRRA 1, 175-196.

Larissa A. Schneider (Grunig) (1985)
The role of public relations in four organizational types, Journalism Quarterly 62(3), 567-577, 594.

James E. Grunig (1976)
Organizations and public relations: Testing a communication theory. Journalism Monographs, No. 46, November 1976.

Practitioner Professionalism, Values and Job Satisfaction

Carmen Lages and Luis Filipe Lages (2005)
Antecedents of managerial public relations: a structural model examination. European Journal of Marketing, 39(1/2), 110-128.

Gabriel M. Vasquez and Maureen Taylor (1999)
What cultural values influence American public relations practitioners?, PRR 25(4), 433-450.

Chandra Grosse Gordon and Kathleen S. Kelly (1999)
Public relations expertise and organizational effectiveness: A study of U.S. hospitals, JPRR 11(2), 143-166.

Lynne M. Sallot, Glen T. Cameron and Ruth Ann Weaver Lariscy (1998)
Pluralistic ignorance and professional standards: Underestimating professionalism of our peers in public relations, PRR 24(1), 1-20.

Lynne M. Sallott, Glen T. Cameron and RuthAnn Weaver Lariscy (1997)
Professional standards in public relations: A survey of educators, PRR 23(3), 197-216.

Glen T. Cameron, Lynne M. Sallot and Ruth Ann Weaver Lariscy (1996)
Developing standards of professional performance in public relations, PRR 22(1), 42-62.

Frank Winston Wylie (1994)
Commentary: Public relations is not yet a profession, PRR 20(1), 1-4.

Brad F. Hainsworth (1993)
Commentary: Professionalism in public relations, PRR 19(4), 311-314.

Terry Lynn Rentner and James H. Bissland (1990)
Job satisfaction and its correlates among public relations workers, Journalism Quarterly 67(4), 950-955.

Larissa A. Grunig (1990)
An exploration of the causes of job satisfaction in public relations, Management Communication Quarterly 3(3), 355.

Laury D. (Masher) Olson (1989)
Job satisfaction of journalists and PR personnel, PRR 15(4), 37-45.

Agency-Client Relations

Catherine E. Hinrichsen (2001)
Best practices in the public relations agency business, HOPR, 451-460.

Priscilla Murphy (1994)
Comparing the decision structures of public relations agencies and clients, JPRR 6(4), 209-229.

Pamela G. Bourland (1993)
The nature of conflict in firm-client relations: A content analysis of Public Relations Journal, 1980-89, PRR 19(4), 385-398.

J. David Pincus, Lalit Acharya, Edgar P. Trotter and Carrie St. Michel (1991)
Conflict between public relations agencies and their clients: A game theory analysis, PRRA 3, 151-164.

Roles of Practitioners

Tom Kelleher (2000)
Public relations roles and media choice, JPRR, 13(4), 303-320.

Danny Moss, Gary Warnaby and Andrew J. Newman (2000)
Public relations practitioner role enactment at the senior management level within U.K. companies, JPRR, 12(4), 277=308.

Dan Berkowitz and Ilias Hristodoulakis (1999)
Practitioner roles, public relations education and professional socialization: An exploratory study, JPRR 11(1), 91-103.

Elizabeth L. Toth, Shirley A. Serini, Donald K. Wright and Arthur G. Emig (1998)
Trends in public relations roles, 1990-1995, PRR 24(3), 145-165.

Greg Leichty and Jeff Springston (1996)
Elaborating public relations roles, J&MCQ, 73(2), 467-477.

David M. Dozier and Glen M. Broom (1995)
Evolution of the manager role in public relations practice, JPRR 7(1), 3-26.

Martha M. Lauzen (1994)
Public relations practitioner role enactment in issues management, Journalism Quarterly 71(2), 356-369.

David M. Dozier (1992) The organizational roles of communications and public relations practitioners, EXCEL, 327-356.

Hugh M. Culbertson (1991)
Role taking and sensitivity: Keys to playing and making public relations roles, PRRA 3, 37-66.

Joey Reagan, Ronald Anderson and Janine Sumner (1990)
A factor analysis of Broom and Smith's public relations roles scale, Journalism Quarterly 67(1), 177-183.

Lalit Acharya (1985)
Public relations environments, Journalism Quarterly 62(3), 577-584.

Power in the Organization

Julie O'Neil (2003)
An investigation of the sources of influence of corporate public relations practitioners, PRR, 29(2), 159-170.

Kenneth D. Plowman (1998)
Power in conflict for public relations, JPRR 10(4), 237-262.

Kathy R. Fitzpatrick (1996)
The role of public relations in the institutionalization of ethics, PRR 22(3), 249-258.

Shirley A. Serini (1994)
Power networks and surveillance: Viewing service as an interactive component of public relations professionalism, PRR 20(1), 43-54.

Shirley A. Serini (1993)
Influences on the power of public relations professionals in organizations: A case study, JPRR 5(1), 1-26.

Martha M. Lauzen (1992)
Public relations roles, intraorganizational power and encroachment, JPRR 4(2), 61-80.

Larissa A. Grunig (1992)
Power in the public relations department, EXCEL, 483-502.

Larissa A. Grunig (1990)
Power in the public relations department, PRRA 2, 115-156.

Linda Childers (Hon) (1989)
Credibility of Public Relations at the NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission], PRRA 1, 97-114.

Gender Issues; Role of Women in Public Relations

Barbara Barnett (2005)
Feminists shaping news: A framing analysis of news releases from the National Organization of Women, JPRR 17(4), JPRR 341-362.

James G. Hutton (2005)
The myth of salary discrimination in public relations, PRR, 31(1), 73-84.

Julie L. Andsager and Stacey J.T. Hust (2005)
Differential gender orientation in public relations: Implications for career choices, PRR, 31(1), 85-92.

Bey-Ling Sha and Elizabeth L. Toth (2005)
Future professionals' perceptions of work, life and gender issues in public relations, PRR 31(1), 93-100.

Linda Aldoory and Elizabeth Toth (2004)
Leadership and gender in public relations: Perceived effectveiness of transformational and tranactional leadership styles, JPRR, 16(2), 157-186.

Julie O'Neil (2003)
An analysis of the relationships among structure, influence and, gender: Helping to build a feminist theory of public relations, JPRR, 15(2), 151-180.

Youjin Choi and Linda Childers Hon (2002)
The influence of gender composition in powerful positions on public relations practitioners' gender-related perceptions, JPRR, 14(3), 229-263.

Linda Aldoory and Elizabeth Toth (2002)
Gender discrepancies in a gendered profession: A developing theory for public relations, JPRR, 14(2), 103-126.

Brenda Wrigley (2002)
Glass ceiling? What class ceiling? A qualitative study of how women view the class ceiling in public relations and communication management, JPRR, 14(1), 27-56.

Elizabeth L. Toth (2001)
How feminist theory advanced the practice of public relations, HOPR, 237-246.

Larissa A. Grunig (2000)
A feminist phase anlaysis of research on women in postmodern public relations, POPRR, 89-120.

Larissa A. Grunig, Elizabeth L. Toth and Linda Childers Hon (2000)
Feminist values in public relations, JPRR 12(1), 49-68.

Betty Farmer and Lisa Waugh (1999)
Gender differences in public relations students' career attitudes: A benchmark study, PRR 25(2), 235-250.

Linda Aldoory (1998)
The language of leadership for female public relations practitioners, JPRR 10(2), 73-102.

Shirley A. Serini, Elizabeth L. Toth, Donald K. Wright and Arthur Emig (1998)
Power, gender and public relations: Sexual harassment as a threat to the practice. JPRR 10(3), 193-218.

Susan Henry (1998)
Dissonant notes of a retiring feminist: Doris E. Fleischman's later years, JPRR 10(1), 1-34.

Shirley A. Serini, Elizabeth Toth, Donald K. Wright and Arthur G. Emig (1997)
Watch for falling glass...Women, men and job satisfaction in public relations: A preliminary analysis. JPRR 9(2), 99-118

Karen S. Miller (1997)
Woman, man, lady, horse: Jane Stewart: Public relations executive, PRR 23(3), 249-270.

Ruth Ann Weaver Lariscy, Lynne Sallot and Glen T. Cameron (1996)
Justice and gender: An instrumental and symbolic explication. JPRR 8(2), 107-122.

Linda Childers Hon (1995)
Toward a feminist theory of public relations, JPRR 7(1), 27-88.

Larissa A. Grunig (1995)
The consequences of culture for public relations: The case of women in the foreign service. JPRR 7(2), 139-161.

Shuk Yin Tam, David M. Dozier, Martha M. Lauzen and Michael R. Real (1995)
The impact of superior-subordinate gender on the career advancement of public relations practitioners, JPRR 7(4), 259-272.

Ruth Ann Weaver-Lariscy, Glen T. Cameron and Duane D. Sweep (1994)
Women in higher education public relations: An inkling of change? JPRR 6(2), 125-140.

Elizabeth L. Toth and Larissa A. Grunig (1993)
The missing story of women in public relations, JPRR 5(3), 152-176.

Martha M. Lauzen (1992)
Effects of gender on professional encroachments in public relations, Journalism Quarterly 69(1), 173-180.

Linda Childers Hon, Larissa A. Grunig and David M. Dozier (1992)
Women in public relations: Problems and opportunities, EXCEL, 419-438.

Elizabeth L. Toth and Carolyn G. Cline (1991)
Public relations practitioner attitudes toward gender issues: A benchmark study, PRR 17(2), 161-174.

Pamela J. Creedon (1991)
Public relations and "women's work": Toward a feminist analysis of public relations roles, PRRA 3, 67-84.

Larissa A. Grunig (1991)
Court-ordered relief from sex discrimination in the foreign service: Implications for women working in development communication, PRRA 3, 85-114.

Elizabeth Lance Toth (1989)
Whose freedom and equity in public relations? The gender balance argument. Mass Comm Review 16(1/2), 70.

Excellence Model of Public Relations Practice

Larissa A. Grunig, James E. Grunig and William P. Ehling (1992)
What is an effective organization?, EXCEL, 65-90.

Jon White and David M. Dozier (1992) Public relations and management decision making, EXCEL, 91-108.

Fred C. Repper (1992)
How communications managers can apply the theories of excellence and effectiveness, EXCEL, 109-116.

James E. Grunig (1992)
What is excellence in management?, EXCEL, 219-250.

William P. Ehling and David M. Dozier (1992)
Public relations management and operations research, EXCEL, 251-284.

Larissa A. Grunig (1992)
Toward the philosophy of public relations, RACA, 65-92.

VII. Program Development and Planning

See books on Behavioral Research Methods and Campaigns.

Research and Problem/Opportunity Identification

Dan Kazoleas and Alan Wright (2001)
Improving corporate and organization communications: A new look at developing and implementing the communication audit, HOPR, 471-478.

Marion K. Pinsdorf (2000)
Doing public relations by the numbers: Little mac or big mac? PRR, 26(3), 261-276.

Erica Weintraub, Bruce E. Pinkleton and Andrea Dixon (2000)
Barriers to public relations program research, JPRR 12(3), 235-254.

Samuel Coad Dyer (1996)
Descriptive models for public relations scanning: A practitioner's perspective, JPRR 8(3), 137-150.

Gerald C. Stone (1996)
Public relations telephone surveys: Avoiding methodological debacles, PRR 22(4), 327-340.

Martha M. Lauzen (1995)
Toward a model of environmental scanning, JPRR 7(3), 163-186.

Craig S. Fleisher and Sara Burton (1995)
Taking stock of corporate benchmarking practices: Panacea or Pandora's Box?, PRR 21(1), 1-20.

Gael F. Walker (1994)
Communicating public relations research, JPRR 6(3), 141-162.

Larissa A. Grunig (1992)
Matching public relations research to the problem: Conducting a special focus group, JPRR 4(1), 21-44.

Glen T. Cameron, Ruth Ann Weaver Laricy and Duane D. Sweep (1992)
Predictors of systematic public relations research in higher education, Journalism Quarterly 69(2), 466-472.

David M. Dozier (1990)
The innovation of research in public relations practice: Review of a program of studies, PRRA 2, 3-28.

Michael Ryan and David L. Martinson (1990)
Social science research, professionalism and public relations practitioners, Journalism Quarterly 67(1), 199-211. 1

J.D. Rayburn II and Thomas L. Preston (1990)
The science behind public relations: We need rigorous research to get results we want. Currents 16(2), 26.

Walter K. Lindemann (1990)
Research evaluation and measurement: An national perspective, PRR 16(2), 3-16. (* Special Issue)

Larissa A. Grunig (1990)
Using focus group research in public relations, PRR 16(2), 36-49. (* Special Issue)

Joseph C. Scott III and Dan O'Hair (1989)
Expanding psychographic concepts in public relations:The composite audience profile, PRT, 203-220.

Problem-Solving and Planning

Kelly Page Werder(2005)
An empirical analysis of the influnce of perceived attributes of publics on public rleations strategy use and effectiveness, JPRR, 17(3), 217-266.

Laurie J. Wilson (2001)
Extending strategic planning to communication tactics, HOPR, 215-222.

Danny Moss and Gary Wanaby (2000)
Strategy and public relations, POPRR, 59-86.

Magda Pieczka (2000) Objectives and evaluation in public relations work: What do they tell us about expertise and professionalism?, JPRR 12(3), 211-234.

The Institute for Public Relations (1999)
Guidelines for setting measureable PR objectives. Monograph published by The Institute for Public Relations, Gainesville, Fla.. 32611-8400.

Rick Fischer (1998)
Public relations problem solving: Heuristics and expertise, JPRR 10(2), 137-153.

Brad E. Hainsworth and Laurie J. Wilson (1992)
Strategic program planning. PRR 18(1), 9-16.

Donald F. Schwartz and Carroll J. Glynn (1989)
Selecting channels for institutional public relations, PRR 15(4), 24-36.

James L. Guardino, Joe Fritch and Bruce Haynes (1989)
"If you knew what I knew, you'd make the same decision,": A common misperception underlying public relations campaigns, PRT, 299-208.

VIII. PR Program: Implementation and Evaluation

See books on
Behavioral Research Methods and Campaigns


Erik L. Collins and Lynn M. Zoch (2001)
Targeting the young, the poor, the less educated: thinking beyond traditional media, PRR, 26(2), 197-212.

H.R. Hutchins (2001)
A new order for public relations: Goodbye cost center, hello profit center, HOPR, 445-450.

Kirk Hallahan (2001)
Strategic media planning: Toward an integrated public relations media model, HOPR, 461-470.

Kirk Hallahan (2000)
Enhancing motivation, ability and opportunity to process public relations messages, PRR, 26(4), 263-280.

John Budd, Jr. (1995)
Commentary: Communications doesn't define PR, it diminishes it, PRR 21(3), 177-180.


Everett Justin Laborde and Donnalyn Pompper (2006)
Public relations program evaluation and encroachment effect in the for-profit sector, PRR 31(1), 77-79.

Robina Xavier, Kim Johnston, Amisha Patel, Tom Watson and Peter Simmons (2005)
Using evaluaiton techniques and performance claims to demonstrate public relations impact: An Australian perspective. PRR, 31(3), 417-424.

Yungwook Kim (2001)
Measuring the economic value of public relations, PRR, 13(1), 3-26.

Yungwook Kim (2000)
Measuring the bottom-line impact of corporate public relations, J&MCQ, 77(2), 273-291.

Tom Watson (2001)
Integrating planning and evaluation: Evaluating the public relations practice and public relations programs, HOPR, 259-268.

Linda Childers Hon (1998)
Demonstrating effectiveness in public relations: goals, objectives and evaluation, JPRR 10(2), 103-116.

Walter K. Lindenmann (1997)
Guidelines and standards for measuring and evaluating PR effectiveness. Monograph published by the The Institute for Public Relations Research & Education, Gainesville, Fla.

Walter K. Lindenmann (1997)
Setting minimum standards for measuring public relations effectiveness, PRR 23(4), 391-401.

M.J.M. Holgate, G.J. Davies, S.A. Kerr and F.M.M. Johnston (1997, July)
Accounting for negative publicity in project economics, Journal of Petroleum Technology 49(7), 719-723.

Walter K. Lindenmann (1997)
Selected bibliography of articles, books and papers relating to research for measuring and evaluating public relations effectiveness, PRR 23(4), 402-408

Linda Childers Hon (1997)
What have you done for me lately? Exploring effectiveness in public relations, JPRR 9(1), 1-30.

Craig S. Flesiher and Darren Mahaffy (1997)
A balanced scorecard approach to public relations management assessment, PRR 23(2), 117-142.

Rick Fischer (1995)
Control construct design in evaluating campaigns, PRR 21(1), 45-58.

David M. Dozier and William P. Ehling (1992)
Evaluation of public relations programs: What the literature tells us about their effects, EXCEL, 159-184.

David M. Dozier and Fred C. Repper (1992)
Research firms and public relations practices, EXCEL, 185-218.

William P. Ehling (1992)
Estimating the value of public relations and communication to the organization, EXCEL, 617-638.

Jennie M. Piekos and Edna F. Einsiedel (1990)
Roles and program evaluation techniques among Canadian public relations practitioners, PRRA 2, 95-114.

James H. Bissland (1990)
Accountability gap: Evaluation practices show improvement, PRR 16(2), 25-35. (* Special Issue)

John Pavlik, John Vastyan and Michael F. Maher (1990)
Using readership research to study employee views, PRR 16(2), 50-60.

Connie Rosser, June A. Flora, Steven H. Chaffee and John W. Farquhar (1990)
Using research to predict learning from a PR campaign, PRR 16(2),61-77.

Philip J. Tichenor, George A. Donohue and Clarice N. Olien (1977)
Community research and evaluating community relations, PRR 3, 96-109.

VII. Communication Theories and Public Relations

Behavioral Theories: Persuasion and Perception

See books on Behavioral Research Findings

Hua-Hsin Wan and Michael Pfau (2004)
The relative effectiveness of inoculation, bolstering, and combined approaches in crisis communication, JPRR, 16(3), 301-328.

Jerome C. Kuperman (2003)
Using cognitive schema theory in the development of public relaitons strategy: Exploring the case of firms and financial analysts following acquisition announcements, JPRR, 117-150.

Coy Callison and Dolf Zillman (2002)
Company affiliation and communication ability: How perceived organizational ties influence source persuasiveness in a company-negative news environment, JPRR, 14(2), 85-102.

Beth Olson (2001)
Media effects research for public relations practitioners, HOPR, 269-278.

Jon White (2000)
Psychology and public relations, POPRR, 145-156.

Toni L. Schmidt and Jacqueline C. Hitchon (1999)
When advertising and public relations converge: An application of schema theory to the persuasive impact of alignment ads, J&MCQ, 76(3), 433-455.

James K. VanLeuven (1989)
Theoretical models for public relations campaigns, PRT, 193-202.

Gerald R. Miller (1989)
Persuasion and public relations, Two "Ps" in a Pod, PRT, 45-66.

Donald L. Johnson (1989)
The coorientation model and consultant roles, PRT, 243-264.

Peter K. Hamilton (1989)
Application of a generalized persuasion model to public relations research, PRT, 323-335.

Behavioral Theories: Based on Individual Differences

Ronald B. Anderson (2000)
Vicarious and persuasive influences on efficacy expectations and intentions to perform breast self-examination, PRR 26(1), 97-114.

Ronald B. Anderson (1995)
Cognitive appraisal of performance capability in the prevention of drunken driving: A test of self-efficacy theory, JPRR 7(3), 205-209.

Ronald D. Smith (1993)
Psychological type and public relations: Theory, research and applications, JPRR 5(3), 177-200.

Robert L. Heath and William Douglas (1991)
Effects of involvement on reactions to sources of messages and to message clusters, PRRA 3, 179-195.

Carolyn Garrett Cline, Michael H. McBride and Randy E. Miller (1989)
The theory of psychological type congruence in public relations and persuasion, PRT, 221-242.

Behavioral Theories: Based on Information Processing

Hugh M. Culbertson, Carl J. Denbow and Guido H. Stempel III (1998)
Needs and beliefs in construct availability: Keys to new understanding, PRR 24(2), 125-144.

Michael D. Slater, Helen Chipman, Garry Auld, Thomas Keefe and Patricia Kendall (1992)
Information processing and situational theory: A cognitive response analysis, JPRR 4(4), 189-204.

Risk Communication Theory

Oyvind Ihlen (2004)
Norweigan hydroelectric power: Testing a heuristic for analyzing symbolic strategies and resources, PRR, 30(2), 217-224.

Michael J. Palenchar and Robert L. Heath (2002)
Another part of the risk communication model: Analysis of communication processes and message content, JPRR, 14(2), 127-158.

Robert L. Heath and Michael Palenchar (2000)
Community relations and risk communication: A longitudinal study of the impact of emergence response messages, JPRR 12(2), 131-162.

David E. Williams and Bolanle A. Olanrian (1998)
Expanding the crisis planning function: Introducing elements of risk communication to crisis communication practice, PRR 24(3), 387-400.

Robert L. Heath, Shaila Seshadri and Jaesub Lee (1998)
Rick communication: A two-community analysis of proximity, dread, trust, involvement, uncertainty, openness/accessibility and knowledge on support/opposition toward chemical companies, JPRR 10(1), 1998.

Robert L. Heath and Douglas D. Abel (1996)
Proactive response to citizen risk concerns: Increasing citizens' knowledge of emergency response practices, JPRR 8(3), 151-172.

Robert L. Heath and Douglas D. Abel (1996)
Types of knowledge as predictors of company support: The role of information in risk communication, JPRR 8(1), 35-56.

Donn James Tilson (1996)
Promoting a 'greener' image of nuclear power in the U.S. and Britain, PRR 22(1), 63-80.

Robert L. Heath, Shu-Heui-Liao and William Douglas (1995)
Effects of perceived economic harms and benefits on issue involvement, use of information sources and actions: A study in risk communications, JPRR 7(2), 89-110.

Christine Diana Gray and Robert L. Heath (1995)
Working with technical experts in the risk management infrastructure, PRR 21(3), 211-224.

Jamie Press Lacey and John T. Llewellyn (1995)
The engineering of outrage: Mediated constructions of risk in the alar controversy, INQUIRY, 47-68.

Kathy Nathan, Robert L. Heath and William Douglas (1992)
Tolerance for potential environmental health risks: The influence of knowledge, benefits, control, involvement and uncertainty, JPRR 4(4), 235-258.

Mary Ann Ferguson, JoAnn Myer Valenti and Geetu Melwani (1991)
Communicating with risk-takers: A public relations perspective, PRRA 3, 195-224.

Information Campaigns, Including Health Communication

See books on Campaigns

Emma Weitkamp (2003)
British newspapers privilege health and medicine topics over other science news, PRR 29(3), 321.

Kurt Wise (2001)
Opportunities for public relations research in public health, PRR, 27(4), 475-488.

Linda Aldoory (2001)
Making health messages meaningful for women: Factors that influence involvement, JPRR 13(2), 163-185.

Laurel Traynowicz Hetherington, Daradirek Ekachai and Michael G. Parkinson (2001)
Public relations in the health care industry, HOPR, 571-578.

Susan Lucarelli Dimmick, with Trace E. Bell, Samuel G. Burgins, and Caroline Ragsdale (2000)
Relationship managemnt: A new professional model, PRRM, 117-136.

T.N. Walters, Lynne M. Walters, Marilyn Kern-Foxworth, and Susanna Hornig Priest (1997)
The picture of health? Message standardization and recall of televised AIDS public service announcements, PRR, 23(2), 143-160.

John A. Ledingham (1993)
The kindness of strangers: Predictor variables in a public information campaign, PRR 19(4), 367-384.

Garrett J. O'Keefe and Kathleen Reid (1990)
The uses and effects of public service advertising, PRRA 2, 67-94.

Ronald B. Anderson (1989)
Reassessing the odds against finding meaningful behavioral change in mass media health promotion campaigns, PRT, 309-323.

Rhetorical Theories

See books on Cultural and Critical Perspectives

Charles Marsh (2006)
The syllogism of aplogia: Rhetorical statis theory and crisis communication, PRR 32(1), 41-46.

Shirley Leitch and Sally Davenport <2006)
Talking with the silent majority: An interest-identity framework, PRR 32(1), 71-73.

Oyvind Ihlen (2005>
The power of social capital: Adopting Bordieu to the study of public relations, PRR 31(4), 492-496.

Judy Motion <2005)
Participative public relatiobns: Power to the people or legitimacy for government discourse?, PRR 31(4), 505-512.

Ashli Quesinberry Stokes (2005>
Metabolife's meaning: A call for the constitutive study of public relatiobns, PRR 31(4), 556-565.

Ilse Strobbe and Geert Jacobs (2005)
E-releases: A view from linguistic pragmatics, PRR, 31(1), 2289-292.

Nilanjana Bardham (2003)
Rupturing public relations metanarratives: The example of India, JPRR, 15(3), 225-248.

Stuart L. Esrock, Joy L. Hart, Margaret U. D'Silva and Kathy J. Werking (2002)
The sage of the Crown Pilot: Framing, reframing and reconsideration, PRR 28(4), 209-227.

Michael L. Kent and Maureen Taylor (2002)
Toward a dialogic theory of public relations, PRR, 28(1), 21-38.

Robert L. Heath (2001)
A rhetorical enactment rationale for public relations: The good organization communicating well, HOPR, 31-50.

Robert L. Heath (2000)
A rhetorical perspective on the values of public relations: Crossroads and pathways toward concurrence, JPRR 12(1), 69-92.

Joye C. Gordon (1997)
Interpreting definitions of public relations: Self-assessment and a symbolic-interactionism-based alternative, PRR 23(1), 57-66.

Myra Gregory Knight (1999)
Getting past the impasse: Framing as a tool for public relations, PRR 25(3), 381-398.

Kirk Hallahan (1999)
Seven models of framing, JPRR 11(2), 205-242.

Thomas J. Mickey (1997)
A postmodern view of public relations: Sign and reality. PRR 23(3), 271-284.

William N. Elwood (1995)
Public relations as rhetorical epxerience: The integral principle in case study analysis, INQUIRY, 3-12.

Barry Brummett (1995)
Scanalous rhetorics, INQUIRY, 13-26.

Gabriel M. Vasquez (1994)
Testing a communication theory-method-message-behavior complex for the investigation of publics. JPRR 6(4), 267-268.

Dirk C. Gibson (1991)
The communications continuum: A theory of public relations, PRR 17(2), 175-184.

George Cheney and George N. Dionisopoulos (1989)
Public relations? No, relations with publics: A rhetorical-organizational approach to contemporary corporate communications, RACA, 135-158.

Interpersonal Theory

Marion K. Pinsdorf (2002)
Greater dead heroes than live husbands: Widows as image-makers, PRR 28(3), 283-299.

W. Timothy Coombs (2001)
Interpersonal communication and public relations, HOPR, 105-115.

T. Dean Tomlinson (2000)
An intpersonal primer with implications for public relations, PRRM, 177-204.

Elizabeth L. Toth (2000)
From personal influence to interpersonal influence: A model for relationship management, PRRM, 205-211.

X. Communications Technology and Media


Maureen Taylor and Danielle C. Perry (2005)
Diffusion of traditional and new media tactics in crisis communciation, PRR, 31(2), 209-218.

Ray E. Hiebert (2005)
Commentary: New technologies, public relations and democracy, PRR, 31(1), 1-10.

Lance V. Porter and Lynne M. Sallot (2005)
Web power: A survey of practitioners' world wide web use and their pereceptions of its effects on their decision-making power, PRR, 31(1), 111-120.

Kirk Hallahan (2004)
Protecting an organization's digtal public relations assets, PRR, 30(3), 255-268.

Anne Gregory (2004)
Scope and structure of public relations: A technology driven view, PRR 30(3), 245-254.

Lynne M. Sallot, Lance V. Porter and Carolina Acosta-Alzuru (2004)
Practitioners' web use and perceptions of their own roles and power: A qualitative study, PRR 30(3), 269-278.

Lance V. Porter and Lynne M. Sallot (2003)
The internet and public relations: Investigating practitioners' roles and the world wide web. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80(3), 603-622.

Lance Vardaman Porter, Lynne M. Sallot, Glen T. Cameron & Scott Shamp (2001)
New technologies and public relations: Exploring practitioners' use of online resources to earn a seat at the management table. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 78(1), 172-190.

Edward J. Lordan (2001)
Cyberspin: The use of new technologies in public relations, HOPR, 583-590.

Suzanne Elizabeth Gaddis (2001)
On-line research techniques for the public relations practitioner, HOPR, 591-602..

Zoraida R. Cozier and Diane F. Witmer (2001)
The development of a structuration analysis of new publics in an electronic environment, HOPR, 615-624.

Melissa A. Johnson (1997)
Public relations and technology: Practitioner perspectives, JPRR 9(3), 213-236.

Claude-Jean Bertrand (1995)
Commentary: The media in 2045--Not a forecast but a dream, PRR 21(4), 271-286.

Shirley A. Ramsey (1993)
Issues management and the use of technologies in public relations, PRR 19(3), 261-276.

Linda Jo Calloway (1991)
Survival of the fastest: Information technology and corporate crises, PRR 17(1), 85-92.

Internet and World Wide Web

See books on Internet and World Wide Web

Bryan H. Reber, Karla Gower and Jennifer A. Robinson (2005)
The Internet and litigation public relations, JPRR, 18(1), 23-44.

Chris Galloway (2005)
Cyber PR and the "dynamic touch," PRR, 31(4), 572-577.

Muhammed I. Ayish (2005)
Virtual public relations in the United Arab Emirates: A case study of 20 organizations' use of the Internet, PRR, 31(3), 381-388. ** Special issue on Arab Public Relations.

Seok Kang and Hanna E. Norton (2004)
Nonprofit organization's use of the World Wide Web: Are they sufficiently fulfilling organizational goals? PRR, 30(3), 279-284.

Michael Maynard and Yan Tan (2004)
Between global and glocal: Content analysis of the Chinese Web Sites of the top 100 global brands, PRR 30(3), 285-292.

Patricia A. Curtin and T. Kenn Gaither (2004)
International agenda-building in cyberspace: A study of Middle East government English-language websites, PRR, 30(1), 25-36.

Arnnelie M.E. Naude, Johannes D. Froneman and Roy A. Atwood (2004)
The use of the internet by ten South African non-governmental organizations--a public relations perspective, PRR, 30(1), 87-94.

Jae-Hwa Shin and Glen T. Cameron (2003)
The potential of online media: A coorientational analysis of conflict between PR practitioners and journalists in South Korea. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80(3), 583-602.

Michael Ryan (2003)
Public relations and the web: Organizational problems, gender and institution type. PRR 29(3), 335-350.

Samsup Jo and Yungwook Kim (2003)
The effect of web characteristics on relationship building, JPRR 15(3), 199-224.

Marie E. Murgolo-Poore, Leyland F. Pitt, Pierre R. Berthon and Gerard Prendegast (2003)
Corporate intelligence dissemination as a consequences of intranet effectivness; an empirical study, PRR, 29(2), 171-184.

Coy Callison (2003)
Media relations and the Internet: how Fortune 500 company web sites assist journalists in gathering news, PRR, 29(1), 29-42.

David Hachigian and Kirk Hallahan (2003)
Perceptions of public relations web sites by computer industry journalists, PRR, 29(2), 43-62.

Michael L. Kent, Maureen Taylor and William J. White (2003)
The relationship between Web site design and organizational responsiveness to stakeholders, PRR, 29(2), 63-78.

Maria E. Len-Rios (2002)
The Bush and Gore presidential campaign web sites: Identifying with Hispanic voters during the 2000 Iowa caucuses and New Hampshire primary. Journalism & Mass Communciation Quarterly, 79(4), 887-904.

Ann Marie DiNardo (2002)
The Internet as a crisis management tool: A critique of banking sites during Y2K, PRR 28(4), 367-378.

Shearlean Duke (2002)
Wired science: Use of World Wide Web and e-mail in science public relations, PRR 28(3), 311-324.

Marie E. Murgolo-Poore, Leyland F. Pitt and Michael T. Ewing (2002)
Intranet effectiveness: a public relations paper-and-pencil checklist, PRR, 28(1), 113-123.

Maureen Taylor, Michael L. Kent and William J. White (2001)
How activist organizations are using the Internet to build relationships, PRR, 27(3), 263-284.

Kirk Hallahan (2001)
Improving public relations web sites through usability research, PRR, 27(2), 223-240.

Stuart L. Escrock and Greg B. Leichty (1999)
Corporate world wide web pages: Serving the news media and other publics, J&MCQ, 76(3), 456-467.

Jeffrey K. Springston (2001)
Public relations and new media technology: The impact of the Internet, HOPR, 603-614.

Stuart L. Esrock and Gred B. Leichty (2000)
Organization of corporate web pages: Publics and functions, PRR 26(3), 327-344.

Laura Newland Hill and Candace White (2000)
Public relations practitioners' perceptions of the World Wide Web as a communications tool, PRR 26(1), 31-52.

Carol Ann McKeown and Kenneth D. Plowman (1999)
Reaching publics on the web during the 1996 presidential campaign, JPRR 11(4), 321-347.

Candace White and Niranjan Raman (1999)
The World Wide Web as a public relations medium: The use of research, planning and evaluation in web site development, PRR 25(4), 405-420.

Sally J. McMillan (1998)
Who pays for content? Funding in interactive media. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 4(1). Online at

Claire Hoertz Badaracco (1998)
The transparent corporation and organized community, PRR 23(3), 265-272. (* Special Issue)

Robert L. Heath (1998)
New communication technologies: An issues management point of view, PRR 24(3), 273-288. (* Special Issue)

W. Timothy Coombs (1998)
The internet as potential equalizer: New leverage for confronting social irresponsibility, PRR 24(3), 289-305. (* Special Issue)

Stuart L. Esrock and Greg B. Leichty (1998)
Social responsibility and corporate web pages: Self-presentation or agenda-setting, PRR 24(3), 305-320. (* Special Issue)

Michael L. Kent and Maureen Taylor (1998)
Building dialogic relationships through the World Wide Web, PRR 24(3), 321-334. (* Special Issue)

Thomas J. Mickey (1998)
Selling the internet: A cultural studies approach to public relations, PRR 24(3), 335-350. (* Special Issue)

Bonita Dostal Neff (1998)
Harmonizing global relations: A speech act theory analysis of PR Forum, PRR 24(3), 351-376. (* Special Issue)

Steven R. Thomsen (1996)
"@Work in Cyberspace": Exploring practitioner use of the PR Forum, PRR 22(2), 115-132.

Database Technology

Lisa A. Petrison and Paul Wang (1993)
From relationships to relationship marketing: Applying database technology to public relations, PRR 19(3), 235-246.

Steven R. Thomsen (1995)
Using online data bases in corporate issues management, PRR 21(2), 103-122.

Other Media

Linda P. Morton (2005)
PRSA publication managers' preferences for graphic design, PRR, 31(2), 281-284.

Nancy Somerick and Lee Weir (1998)
How public relations professionals can use food labels as effective communication tools, PRR 24(3), 377-386.

Rachel L. Holloway (1995)
Philip Morris magazine: An innovation in grass roots issue management, INQUIRY, 135-155.

Don Tilson (1993)
The shaping of "eco-nuclear" publicity: The use of visitors' centers in public relations. Media, Culture & Society 15(3), 419.

Dennis W. Jeffers (1989) Using public relations theory to evaluate specialized magazines as communication channels, PRRA 1, 115-124.

XII. Communications, Publicity and News Media Relations

See section on Product Publicity
See books on Publicity and Media Relations


Lynne M. Sallot and Elizabeth A. Johsnon (2006)
Investigating relationships between journalists and public relations practtioners: Working together to set, frame and build the public agenda, 1991-2004, PRR 32(2), 151-159.

Lynn M. Sallot and Elizabeth A. Johnson (2006)
To contact ... or not? Investigating journalists' assessments of public relations subsidies and contact preferences, PRR, 32(1), 83-86.

Dirk C. Gibson (2006)
B.T.K. strangler versus Wichita Police Department: The significance of serial murder media relations, PRR 32(1), 58-65.

Jae-Hwa Shin, I-Huel Cheng and Glen T. Cameron (2005)
Going head to head: Content analysis of high profile conflicts as played out in the press, PRR, 31(3), 399-406.

Youngmin Yin (2005)
A scale for measuring media relations effort, PRR, 31(3), 434-436.

Jian Wang and Tsan-Kuo Chang (2004)
Strategic public diplomacy and local press: How a high profile "head-of-state" visit was covered in America's heartland, PRR, 30(1), 11-24.

Denise E. DeLorme and Fred Fedler (2003)
Journalists' hostility toward public relations: an historical analysis, PRR, 29(2), 99-124.

William B. Anderson (2001)
The media battle between Celebrex and Vioxx: Influencing media coverage but not content, PRR, 27(4), 449-460.

Patricia A. Curtin and Eric Rhodenbaugh (2001)
Building the news media agenda on the environment: A comparison of public relations and journalistic sources, PRR, 27(3), 179-196.

John A. Fortunato (2000)
Public relations strategies for creating mass media content: A case study of the National Basketball Association, PRR, 26(4), 481-498.

Philip M. Napoli, Maureen Taylor and Gerald Powers (1999)
Writing activities of public relations practitioners; The relationship between experience and writing tasks, PRR 25(3), 369-380.

News Releases

Linda Morton (1996)
Do public relations managers and technicians value news releases differently? PRR 22(4), 355-368.

Timothy N. Walters, Lynne Masel Walters and Douglas P. Starr (1994)
After the highwayman: Syntax and successful placement of press releases in newspapers, PRR 20(4), 345-356.

Linda P. Morton and Shirley Ramsey (1994)
A benchmark study of the PR News Wire, PRR 20(2), 171-182.

Linda P. Morton and Bill Loving (1994)
In the stocks: Perilous press releases, PRR 20(2), 127-140.

Lynne Masel Walters and Timothy N. Walters (1992)
Environment of confidence: Daily newspaper use of press releases, PRR 18(1), 31-46.

Linda P. Morton and John Warren (1992)
News elements and editors' choices, PRR 18(1), 47-52.

Linda P. Morton and John Warren (1992)
Acceptance characteristics of hometown press releases, PRR 18(4), 385-390.

Linda Morton and John Warren (1992)
Newspapers' art preferences from public relations sources, Newspaper Research Journal, 13(4)/14(1), 121.

Bob Rayfield and Coral M. Ohl (1992)
Examining public relations news releases using the transactional theory of news, Mass Comm Review 19(3), 22.

Linda P. Morton and John Warren (1992)
Proximity: Localization vs. distance in PR news Releases, Journalism Quarterly, 69(4), 1023-1028.

John Warren and Linda P. Morton (1991)
Readability and acceptance of public relations from institutions of higher education, PRR 11(3/4), 129.

Ann Groer (1990).
Paper madness in Washington, Gannett Center Journal, 4(2), 69-82.

Television News and Video News Releases

Mark D. Harmon and Candace White (2001)
How television news programs use video news releases, PRR, 27(3), 213-222.

Steven A. Esposito and Stephen C. Kech (2000)
"Relationship" and the evolution of network news, PRRM, 221-238.

Anne R. Owen and James A. Karrh (1996)
Video News Releases: Effects on viewer recall and attitudes, PRR 22(4), 369-378.

Glen T. Cameron and David Blount (1996)
VNRs and air checks: A content analysis of the use of video news releases in television newscasts, J&MCQ, 73(4), 890-904.

Stephen D. Reese and Glen T. Cameron (1992)
Enhancing VNR Impact: The effects of captioning on memory and understanding of TV news, JPRR 4(4), 221-234.

Randy Rothenberg (1990)
The journalist as Maytag repairman, Gannett Center Journal 4(2), 97-110.

Joseph Turow (1989)
Public relations and newswork: A neglected relationship, American Behavioral Scientist 33(2), 206-212.

Pamela J. Shoemaker (1989)
Public relations versus journalism. Comments on Turow. American Behavioral Scientist 33(2), 213-215.

Dan Caspi (1989)
In search of a theory of television news and public relations: Comments on Turow. American Behavioral Scientist 33(2), 216.

Media Relations, Including Information Subsidization

Patricia A. Curtin (1999)
Re-evaluating public relations information subsidies: Market driven-journalism and agenda-building theory and practice. JPRR 11(1), 52-90.

Lynn M. Sallot, Thomas M. Steinfatt and Michael B. Salwen (1998)
Journalists' and public relations practitioners' news values: Perceptions and cross-perceptions, J&MCQ, 75(2), 366-377.

Edward J. Downes (1998)
Hacks, flacks and spin doctors meet the media: An examination of the Congressional press secretary as a (potential) public relations professional, JPRR 10(4), 263-286.

Glen T. Cameron, Lynn M. Sallot and Patricia A. Curtin (1997)
Public relations and the production of news: A critical review and theoretical framework, Communication Yearbook 20, 111-155. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Robert O. Wyatt, Sharon S. Smith and Julie L Andsager (1996)
Spanning the boundaries: Support for media rights among public relations practitioners, journalists and the public, JPRR 8(2), 123-135.

Robert J. Griffin and Sharon Dunwoody (1995)
Impacts of information subsidies and community structure on local press coverage of environmental contamination, J&MCQ, 72(2) 271-284.

Randy Sumpter and James W. Tankard, Jr. (1994)
The spin doctor: An alternative model of public relations, PRR 20(1), 19-28.

Michael Ryan and David L. Martinson (1994)
Public relations practitioners, journalists view lying similarly, Journalism Quarterly, 71(1), 199-211.

Dan Berkowitz and Douglas B. Adams (1990)
Information subsidy and agenda-building in local television news, Journalism Quarterly 67(4), 723-731.

Jane Leavy (1990)
My book tour, Gannett Center Journal 4(2), 59-68.

Jean Charron (1989)
Relations between journalists and public relations practitioners: Cooperation, conflict and negotiation. Canadian Journal of Communication, 14(2), 41.

Andrew Belz, Albert D. Talbott and Kenneth Starck (1989)
Using role theory to study cross perceptions of journalists and public relations practitioners, PRRA 1, 125-140.

Claire Badarraco (1989)
The influence of publicity typologies on Sherwood Anderson's news values, Journalism Quarterly 66(4), 979-986.

Judy Van Slyke Turk (1986)
Information subsidies and media content: A study of public relations influence on news, Journalism Monographs, No. 100. Columbia SC: Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. See also, Informatoin subsidies and influence, Public Relations Review 11(3), 1-14 (1985) and Public relations influence on the news, Newspaper Research Journal 7(4), 15-27.

XII. Marketing and Promotion

See books on Marketing and Public Relations

Integrated Marketing Communication

William B. Anderson (2006)
American v. National Football League: Using public relations to "win" a war against monopoly, PRR 32(1), 53-57.

Leslie Jackson Turner (2005)
Elmo's story: A ticklish media creation. PRR, 31(2), 297-301

Samsup Jo (2004)
Effect of content type on impact: editorial vs. advertising, PRR 30(4), 503-512.

James G. Hutton (2001)
Defining the relationship between public relations and marketing: Public relations' most important challenge, HOPR, 205-214.

James A. Karth (1998)
Brand placement: A review. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 20(2), 31-49.

Anders Gronstedt (1996)
Integrated communications at America's leading total quality management corporations, PRR 22(1), 25-42.

Anders Gronstedt (1996)
Integrated marketing communication and public relations: A stakeholder relations model. In Esther Thorson and Jeri Moore (eds.), Integrated Communication: Synergy of Persuasive Voices, pp. 287-304. Mahwah NJ: Erlbam.

Tom Duncan and Clarke Caywood (1996)
The concept, process and evolution of integrated marketing communication. In Esther Thorson and Jeri Moore (eds.), Integrated Communication: Synergy of Persuasive Voices, pp. 13-34. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Product Publicity/Comparisons to Advertising

Kirk Hallahan (1999)
No, Virginia, it's not true what they say about publicity's "implied third-party endorsement effect," PRR 25(3), 331-350.

Kirk Hallahan (1999)
Content class as a contextual cue in the cognitive processing of publicity versus advertising, JPRR 11(4), 293-320.

Paul N. Bloom and Lisa R. Szykman (1998)
How comparative product information affects consumers and competition: The effects of the Business Week and U.S. News & World Report ratings. Advances in Consumer Research, 25, 433-439. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Kirk Hallahan (1996)
Product publicity: An orphan of marketing research. In Esther Thorson and Jeri Moore (eds.), Integrated Communication: Synergy of Persuasive Voices, pp. 305-330. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum.

Jehoshua Eliashberg and Steven M. Shugan (1997, April)
Film critics: Influencers or predictors? Journal of Marketing 61, 68-78.

Dulie Straughan, Glen L. Bleske and Zinshu Zhao (1996) Modeling format and source effects of an advocacy message, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 73, 135-146.

Glen T. Cameron (1995)
Does publicity outperform advertising? An experimental test of the third-party endorsement, JPRR 6(3), 185-205.

Kenneth R. Lord and S. Putrevu (1993)
Advertising and publicity: An information processing perspective, Journal of Economic Psychology, 14(1), 57.

Robert B. Archibald, Clyde A. Haulman and Carlisle E. Moody, Jr. (1993)
Quality, price, advertising and published quality ratings, Journal of Consumer Research 9(3), 347-356.

D.M. Sandler & E. Secunda (1993). Pont of view: Blurred boundaries--where does editorial end and advertising begin? Journal of Advertising Reserch, 33, 73-80.

Dirk C. Gibson (1995)
Public relations considerations of consumer product recall, PRR 21(3), 225-240.

Lawrence C. Soley and Robert L. Craig (1992)
Advertising pressures on newspapers: A survey, Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 1-10.

William T. Moran (1990)
Brand presence and the perceptual frame, Journal of Advertising Research, 30 (October/November), 9-16.

Raymond R. Burke, Jaewun Cho, Wayne S. DeSarbo and Vijay Mahajan (1990)
The impact of product-related announcements on consumer purchase intentions, Advances in Consumer Research 17, 342-350. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

David P. Fan and Carol L. Shaffer (1990)
Effects of the mass media news on trends in the consumption of caffeine-free colas, Advances in Consumer Research 17, 406-414. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Arthur M. Merims (1972)
Marketing's stepchild: product publicity, Harvard Business Review 50(November), 107-113.

Relationship Between Public Relations and Marketing Functions

Danny Moss and Gary Warnaby (1998)
Communications strategy? Strategy communiction? Integrating different perspectives, Journal of Marketing Communications (UK), 4(3), 131-140.

James E. Grunig & Larissa A. Grunig (1998)
The relationship between public relations and marketing in excellent organizations: Evidence from the IABC study, Journal of Marketing Communications (UK), 4(3), 141-161.

Craig Flesiher (1998)
A benchmarked assessment of the strategic management of corporate communications, Journal of Marketing Communications (UK), 4(3), 163-176.

Richard J. Varey (1998)
Locating marketing within the corporate communication managing system, Journal of Marketing Communications (UK), 4(3), 177-190.

Anonymous (1998)
The global institute for corporate and marketing communications, Journal of Marketing Communications (UK), 4(3), 191-194.

Martha M. Lauzen (1993)
When marketing involvement matters at the manager level, PRR 19(3), 247-260.

William P. Ehling, Jon White and James E. Grunig (1992)
Public relations and marketing practices, EXCEL, 357-394.

Walter van Waterschoot and Chrisophe Van de Bulte (1992)
The 4P classification of the marketing mix revisited, Journal of Marketing, 56(October), 83-93.

James K. VanLeuven (1991)
Public relations and marketing: An overview, PRR 17(3), 215-219. (* Special Issue)

Glen M. Broom, Martha M. Lauzen and Kerry Tucker (1991)
Dividing the public relations marketing conceptual domain and operational turf, PRR 17(3), 227-236. (* Special Issue)

Clarke Caywood and Raymond Ewing (1991)
Integrated marketing communications: A new master's degree concept, PRR 17(3), 237-244. (* Special Issue)

Martha M. Lauzen (1991)
Imperialism and encroachment in public relations, PRR 17(3), 245-256. (* Special Issue)

James E. Grunig and Larissa A. Grunig (1991)
Conceptual differences in public relations and marketing: The case of health-care organizations, PRR 17(3), 257-278. (* Special Issue)

Christopher H. Spicer (1991)
Communication functions performed by public relations and marketing practitioners, PRR 17(3), 293-306.

Philip J. Kitchen (1991)
The increasing importance of public relations in fast moving consumer goods firms. Journal of Marketing Management (UK), 7(4), 357-370.

Philip Kotler and William Mindak (1978)
Marketing and public relations. Should they be partners or rivals?, Journal of Marketing, 42, 13-20.

Hybrid Messages: Advertorials, Infomercials, Product Placements

Cynthia M. King (2006)
Making the case for an entertainment approach to public relations, PRR 32 (1), 74-76.

Clyde Brown and Herbert Weltzer (2005)
Every Thursday: Advertorials by Mobil Oil on the op-ed page of the New York Times, PRR, 31(2), 197-208.

Carol J. Pardun and Kathy Brittain McKee (1999)
Product placment as public relations: An exploratory study of the role of public relations firms, PRR 25(4), 481-494.

Pola B. Gupta and Stephen J. Gould (1997)
Consumers' perceptions of the ethics and acceptability of produce placements in movies: Product category and individual differences, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 19(1), 37.

Glen T. Cameron, Huen-Hee Ju-Pak and Bong-Hyun Kim (1996)
Advertorials in magazines: Current use and compliance with industry guidelines. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 73(3), 722-733.

Michael T. Elliot, Paul S. Speck and Frank H. Alpert
The effect of prior exposure level on consumer perceptions of infomercials, Proceedings of the Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, 1995, 212+.

Glen T. Cameron and Patricia A. Curtin (1995)
Tracing sources of information pollution: A survey and experimental test of print media's labeling policy for feature advertising, J&MCQ, 72(1), 178-189 (advertorials)

Gail Tom (1995)
The information content of infomercials, Review of Business, 17(2), 42+.

Stacey Vollmers and Richard Mizerski (1994)
A review and investigation into the effectiveness of product placements in films, Proceedings of the Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, 1994, 97+.

Barry S. Sapolsky and Lance Kinney (1994)
You oughta be in pictures: Product placements in the top-grossing films of 1991. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, 1994, 89+.

Douglas R. Hausknecht, J.B. Wilkinson and George E. Prough (1991)
Effective? Deceptive? Or a Tempest in a Teapot? Akron Business and Economic Review, 22(4), 41+.

Siva K. Balasubramanian (1994) Beyond advertising and publicity: Hybrid messages and public policy issues, Journal of Advertising, 23(4), 29-46.

Siva K. Balasubramanian (1991)
Beyond advertising and publicity: the domain of hybrid messages. Marketing Sciences Institute Working Paper, Report Number 91-131. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Sciences Institute.

Patricia A. Stout, Gary B. Wilcox and Lorrie S. Greer (1989)
Trends in magazine advertorial use, Journalism Quarterly 66(4), 560-564.

XIII. Corporate and Investor Relations


Amy O'Connor (2006)
Alternate sites of identification, PRR 32(1), 80-82.

Michele Schoenberger-Orga and David McKee (2005)
Sustaining edges: CSR, postmodern play, and SMEs, PRR 31(4), 578-583.

David Prabu, Susan Kline and Yang Dai (2005)
Corporate social responsibility practices, corporate identity and purchase intention: A dual-process model, JPRR, 17(3), 291-313.

Michael W. Kramer, Debbie S. Dougherty and Tamyra A. Pierce (2004)
Managing uncertainty during a corporate acquisition. A longitudinal study of communication during an airline acquisition. Human Communication Research, 30(1), 71-101.

Dong-Jin Park and Bruce K. Berger (2004)
The presentation of CEOs in the press. 1990-2000; Increasing salience, positive valence and a focus on competency and personal dimensions of image. JPRR, 16(1), 93-125.

Bryan H. Reber, Fritz Cropp and Glen T. Cameron (2001)
Mythic battles: Examining the lawyer-public relations counselor dynamic, JPRR 13(3), 187-218.

Emma Doughtery (2001)
Public relations and social responsbility, HOPR, 389-402.

Cynthia E. Clark (2000)
Differences between public relations and corporate social responsibility, PRR 26(3), 363-382.

Jack Glascock (2000)
The role of AT&T's public relations campaign in press coverage of the 1982 breakup, PRR 26(1), 67-84.

Dejan Vercic (1997) Towards fourth wave public relations: A case study, PRRIP, 264-279.

Richard E. Crable and Steven L. Vibbert (1995)
Mobil's epideictic advocacy: "Observations" of Prometheus Bound, INQUIRY, 27-46.

Patricia Paystrup (1995)
Plastic as planet-saving "natural resource": advertising to recycle an industry's reality, INQUIRY, 85-116.

David J. Rhees (1993)
Corporate advertising, public relations and popular exhibits: The case of DuPont. History and Technology 10(1/2), 67.

George Cheney (1992)
The corporate person (re)presents itself, RACA, 165-186.

George N.G. Dionisopoulos and Steven R. Goldzwig (1992)
The atomic power industry and the NEW woman, RACA, 205-224.

James S. Measell (1992)
Trade associations: Whose voice? Whose vice?, RACA, 225-240.

Nick Trujillo (1992)
White knights, poker games and the invavasion of the carpetbaggers: Interpreting the sale of a professional sports franchise, RACA, 257-278.

W. Marc Porter (1992)
The environment and the oil company: A semiotic analysis of Chevron's "People Do" campaign, RACA, 279-300.

Investor Relations

Alexander V. Laskin (2006)
Investor relations practices at Fortune 500 Companies: An exploratory study, PRR 32(1), 69-70.

Bryan H. Reber, Fritz Cropp and Glen T. Cameron (2003)
Impossible odds: Contributions of legal counsel and public relations practitioners in a hostile bid for Conrail Inc. by Norfolk Southern Corporation, JPRR, 15(1), 2003.

Barbara K. Peterson and Hugh J. Martin (1996)
CEO perceptions of investor relations as a public relations function: An exploratory study. JPRR 8(3), 173-209.

Coral M. Ohl, J. David Pincus, Tony Rimmer and Denise Harrison (1995)
Agenda building role of news releases in corporate takeovers, PRR 21(2), 89-102.

Kelly Fudge (1995)
Issue management during corporate mergers: A case study of AT&T and NCR, INQUIRY, 213-240.

Holly R. Hutchins (1994)
Annual reports: Earning surprising respect from institutional investors, PRR 20(4), 309-318.

Glen T. Cameron (1992)
Memory for investor relations messages: An information processing study of Grunig's situational theory, JPRR 4(1), 45-60.

Michael Smilowitz and Ron Pearson (1989)
Traditional, enlightened and interpretive perspectives on corporate annual reporting, PRT, 83-98.

XIV. Not-for-Profit Organizations


Denise M. Bostdorff (1992)
"The Decision is Yours" Campaign: Planned Parenthood's Characteristic Argument of Morale Value, RACA, 301-314.

Charles T. Salmon (1990)
"God understands when the cause is noble," Gannett Center Journal, 4(2), 23-34.

Philanthrophy/Fundraising and Development

See books on Fundraising

Jiyang Bae and Glen T. Cameron (2006)

Conditioning effect of prior reputaton on perception of corporate giving, PRR 32(2), 144-____.

Margarete R. Hall (2006)
Corporate philanthropy and corporate communication relations: Measuring relationship-building results, JPRR, 18(1), 1-21.

Rebecca Harris<2005)
When giving means taking: Public relatiobns, sponsorship and morally marginal donors, PRR 31(4), 486-491.

Mohan J. Dutta-Bergman (2004)
Describing volunteerism: The theory of unified responsbility, JPRR, 16(4), 353-370.

Debra A. Worley and Jennifer K. Little (2002)
The critical role of stewardship in fund rasiging: The Coaches v. Cancer campaign, PRR, 28(1), 99-112.

Kathleen S. Kelly (2001)
Stewardship: The fifth step in the public relations practice, HOPR, 279-290.

Kathleen S. Kelly (1995)
The fund-raising behavior of U.S. charitable organizations. An explanatory story, JPRR 7(2), 111-138.

Kathleen S. Kelly (1995)
Utilizing public rleations theory to conceptualize and test models of fund raising, J&MCQ, 72(1), 106-127.

Kathleen S. Kelly (1994)
Fund-raising encroachment and the potential of public relations departments in the nonprofit sector, JPRR 6(1), 1-22.

Kathleen S. Kelly (1993)
Public relations and fund-raising encroachment: Losing control in the non-profit sector, PRR 19(4), 349-366.


Ann G. Raas (1992)
Organizing volunteers in public relations: The time is right. Journal of Volunteer Administration, 11(2), 18.

PR and Religion

Jeffrey L. Courtright and Keith Michael Hearit
The good organization speaking well: A paradigm case for religious institutional crisis management, PRR 28(4), 347-360.

Claire Badaracco (1992)
Preface: Public Relations and Religion, 18(3), 231-232. (* Special Issue)

Jeffrey L. Courtright (1992)
Justice O'Connor's messages to the American polity refining the boundaries of religious freedom, 18(3), 233-246. (* Special Issue)

John S. Detweiler (1992)
The religious right's battle plan in the "civil war of values," PRR 18(3), 247-256. (* Special Issue)

Quentin J. Schultze (1992)
Catholic v. Protestant mass-mediated legitimation of popular evangelicalism in Guatemala, PRR 18(3) 257-264. (* Special Issue)

Gloria M. Boone (1992)
Religious Glasnost: Freedom, expression, and media usage by religious groups in the Soviet Union, PRR 18(3), 265-274. (* Special Issue)

David Stiles Shipley (1992)
Sacrifice, victimization, and mismanagement of issues: LBJ's Vietnam crisis, PRR 18(3), 275-286. (* Special Issue)

Marilyn Kern-Foxworth (1992)
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Minister, civil rights activist and public opinion leader, PRR 18(3), 287-297. (* Special Issue)

Gregory Bush (1992)
Business evangelism and the search for social harmony, PRR 18(3), 1891-1916 (* Special Issue).

Claire Badaracco (1992)
Three books for perspective on religious public relations, PRR 18(3), 309-314. (* Special Issue)

Educational Institutions

Julie Kay Henderson (2001)
Educational public relations, HOPR, 535-542.

Barbara J. DeSanto and R. Brooks Garner (2001)
Strength in diversity: The place of public relation in higher education institutions, HOPR, 543-550.

Nicholas C. Neupauer (2001)
Sports information directing: A plea for helping an unknown field, HOPR, 551-556.

Labor Organizations

Tricia Hansen-Horn (2001)
Labor and public relations: The unwritten roles, HOPR, 565-570.

XV. Internal Communications/Employee Relations

See books on Organizational Communications

Samsup Jo and Sung Wook Shim (2005)
Paradigm shift of employee communication: The effect of management communication on trusting relationships, PRR 31(2), 277-281.

Alan R. Freitag and Gaelle Picherit-Duthler (2004)
Employee benefits commuication: proposing a PR-HR cooperative approach, PRR 30(4), 475-482.

Laurie J. Wilson (2000)
Building employee and community relationships through volunteerism: A case study, PRRM, 137-144.

Mina A. Vaughn (1997)
Organizational identification strategies and values in high technology industries: A rhetorical-organizational approach to the analysis of socialization processes in corporate discourse, JPRR 9(2), 119-140.

Inger Jensen (1997)
Legitimacy and strategy of different companies: A perspective of external and internal public relations, PRRIP, 225-246.

Donald K. Wright (1995)
The role of corporate public relations executives in the future of employee communications, PRR 21(3), 181-198.

Theresa A. Russell-Loretz (1995)
Janus in the looking glass: The management of corporate identity in corporate recruitment videos, INQUIRY, 156-174.

Mitchell S. McKinney (1995)
The rhetoric of indoctrination: A critical analysis of new employee orientation, INQUIRY, 175-190.

Michael F. Smith (1995)
SANE/Freeze, issue status and rhetorical diversification, INQUIRY, 191-213.

Robert L. Heath, Steven A. Leth and Kathy Nathan (1994)
Communicating service quality improvement: another role for public relations, PRR 20(1), 29-42.

Glen T. Cameron and Timothy McCollum (1993)
Competing corporate cultures: A multi-method, cultural analysis of the role of internal communication, JPRR 5(4), 217-250.

James E. Grunig (1992)
Symmetrical systems of internal communication, EXCEL, 531-576.

J. David Pincus, Robert E. Rayfield and Michael D. Cozzens (1991)
The chief executive officer's internal communication role: A benchmark program of research, PRRA 3, 1-36.

J. David Pincus, Janice E. Knipp and Robert E. Rayfield (1990)
Internal communication and job satisfaction revisited: The impact of organizational trust and influence on commercial bank supervisors, PRRA 2, 173-192.

Gary L. Kreps (1989)
Reflexivity and internal public relations: The role of information in directing organizational development, RACA, 265-280.

XVI. Community and Government Relations

Community and Tourism Promotion

Catherine C. Mitchell (1989)
Public relations for Appalachia: Berea Mountain life and work. Journalism Quarterly 66(4), 974-978.

Donn James Tilson and Don W. Stacks (1997)
To know us is to love us: The public relations campaign to sell a 'business-tourist-friendly' Miami, PRR 23(2), 95-116.

Preston William Henry, Jr. (1993)
A billion dollars worth of publicity: New Orleans and the 1988 Republican national convention, PRR 19(3), 213-218.


Valerie Terry (2001)
Lobbyists and their stories: Classic PR practitioner role models as functions of Burkean human motivations, JPPR 13(3), 235-260. Grassroots Activities

Robert L. Heath, William Douglas and Michael Russell (1995)
Constituency building: Determining employees willingness to participate in corporate political activities, JPRR 7(4), 273-288.

XVII. Politics and Government Institutions

See books on Politics and Political Communication


Spiro Kiousis, Michael Mitrook, Xu Wu and Trent Seltzer (2006)
First- and second-level agenda-building and agenda-setting effects; Exploring the linkages among candidate news releases, media coverage, and public opinion during the 2002 Florida gubernatorial election, JPRR 18(3), 265-285. Political power through public relations, HOPR, 557-564.

Mordecai Lee (1999)
Reporters and bureaucrats: Public relations counter-strategies by public administrators in an era of distrust in government, PRR 25(4), 451-465. Ulrich Saxer (1993)
Public relations and symbolic politics, JPRR 5(2), 127-151.

Ballot Initiatives and State/Local Elections

Jeffrey P. Jonier and Kathleen M. German (1995)
Communiction in ballot issue campaigns: A rhetorical analysis of the 1991 Cincinnati public schools, INQUIRY, 241-254.

William N. Elwood (1995)
Anatomy of a local ballot issue campaign, INQUIRY, 255-278.

Federal Agencies

Dirk C. Gibson (1997)
A quantitative description of FBI public relations, PRR 23(1), 11-30.

Mordecai Lee (1997)
President Nixon sees "cover up": Public relations in federal agencies, PRR 23(4), 301-326.

Stephen Ponder (1995)
Government publicity and conservation: Gifford Pinchot and the frontier press, Mass Comm Review 22(1 and 2), 64-74.

Susan Caudill (1991)
Trying to harness atomic energy, 1946-1951: Albert Einstein's publicity campaign for world government, Journalism Quarterly 68(1/2), 253-262.

James Kauffman (1991)
NASA's PR campaign on behalf of manned space flight, 1961-63, PRR 17(1), 57-68.

Lynda Birke (1990)
Selling science to the public: Is the drive to educate the public about science just an exercise in public relations and labour recruitment? New Scientist 127(n. 1730), 40.

Constandina A. Titus (1989)
Selling the bomb: Public relations efforts by the Atomic Energy Commission during the 1950s and early 1960s. Government Publications Review 16(1), 15.

Local Government Agencies

Hugh M. Culbertson and Hochang Shin (1989)
Police in America: A study of changing institutional roles as viewed by constituents, PRRA 1, 155-176.

Dennis W. Jeffers (1989)
Putting the "public" first in public relations: An exploratory study of the municipal employee public service attitudes, job satisfaction and communication variables, PRRA 1, 197-214.


Ray Eldon Hiebert (2003)
PUblic relations and propaganda in framing the Iraq war: A preliminary review, PRR, 29(3), 243-256.

Gary Pounder (Maj. USAF) (2000)
Public affairs, information operations and the air war against Serbia," Aerospace Power Journal 14(2), AFRP 10-1, 56-77.

Mordecai Lee (2000)
When Congress tried to cut Pentagon public relations: A lesson from history, PRR 26(2), 131-154.

Ray E. Hiebert (1993)
Public relations, propaganda and war: A book review and essay on the literature, PRR 19(3), 293-302.

Ray E. Hiebert (1991)
Public relations as a weapon of modern warfare, PRR 17(2), 107-116.

Presidential PR

See books on Politics and Political Communication

Sooyoung Cho and William Benoit (2006)
2004 Presidential campaign messages: A functional analysis of press releases from President Bush and Senator Kerry, PRR 32(1), 47-52.

Sooyoung Cho and William Benoit (2005)
Primary presidential election campaign messages in 2004: A functional analysis of the candidates' news releases, PRR, 31(2), 175-184.

Stephynie Chapman Perkins (2005)
Un-presidented: A qualitative framing analysis of the NAACP's public relations response to the 2000 presidential election, PRR, 31(1), 63-72.

Kevin A. Stein (2005)
Success discourse in incumbent presidential television spots, 1956-2004, PRR, 31(2), 285-289.

David Hoffman (1990)
The frictionless presidency. Gannett Center Journal 4(2), 83-96.


Lynn M. Zoch, Beth S. Patterson and Deborah L. Olson (1997)
The status of the school public relations practitioner: A statewide exploration, PRR 23(4), 361-376.

Phyllis Miller (1992)
Establishing criteria for evaluating public school public relations programs, Southwestern mass communication journal 7(1), 45.

Steven H. Chaffee and L. Scott Ward (1968)
Channels of communications in school-community relations, Journalism Monographs, No. 8, September 1968.

XVIII. Intercultural and International

See books on Cultural and Critical Approaches

Multicultural (Also see Critical Theory)

Bey-Ling Sha (2006)
Cultural identity in the segmentation of publics: An emerging theory of intercultural public relations, JPRR 18(1), 45-65.

David Wahlberg (2004)
Ending the debate: Crisis communication analysis of one university's American Indian athletic identity, PRR, 30(2), 197-204.

Linda Childers Hon and Brigitta Brunner (2000)
Diversity issues and public relations, JPRR 12(4), 309-340.

Timothy Coombs and Lainen Schmidt (2000)
An empirical analysis of image restoration: Texaco's racism crisis, JPRR 12(2), 162-178.

Minority Practitioners

Donnalyn Pompper (2004)
Linking ethnic diversity and two-way symmetry: Modeling female African-American practitioners' roles, JPRR, 16(3), 269-300.

Dirk C. Gibson (2002)
Posibilidad y problema: An historical/critical analysis of Hispanic public relations, PRR, 28(1), 63-86.

Maria E. Len-Rios (1998)
Minority public relations practitioner perspectives. PRR, 24(4), 535-555.

Eugenia Zerbinos and Gail Alice Clanton (1993)
Minority practitioners: Career influences, job satisfaction and discrimination, PRR 19(1), 75-91.

Marilyn Kern-Foxworth (1989) Status and roles of minority public relations practitioners, PRR 15(3), 39-47.

Marilyn Kern-Foxworth (1991)
A chronicle of people of color in public relations. Public Relations Quarterly 36(1), 28.

International PR-General; Globalization of Practice

See books on International Public Relations

Patricia A. Curtin and T.Kenn Gaither (2006)
Contested notion of issue identity in international public relations: A case study, JPRR 18(1), 67-89.

Juan Carlos Molleda (2004)
Cross-national conflict shifting: A global public relations dynamic, PRR, 30(1), 1-10.

Maureen Taylor and Marya L. Doerfel (2003)
Building interorganizational relationships that build nations. Human Communication Research, 29(2), 153-181.

Alan R. Freitag (2002)
Ascending cultural competence potential: An assessment and profile of U.S. public relations practitioners' preparation for international assignments, JPRR, 14(3), 207-228.

John F. Budd, Jr. (2001)
Foreign policy acumen needed by global CEOs, PRR, 27(2), 123-134.

R.S. Zaharma (2001)
"In-awareness" approach to international public relations, PRR, 27(2), 135-148.

Maureen Taylor (2001)
International public relations opportunities and challenges for the 21st century, HOPR, 629-638.

Robert I. Wakefield (2001)
Effective public relations in the multinational corporation, HOPR, 639-648.

Doug Newsom, Judy VanSlyke Turk and Dean Kruckeberg (2001)
International public relations: A focus on pedagogy, HOPR, 649-658.

Dean Kruckeberg (2000)
Public relations: Toward a global professionalism, PRRM, 145-158.

Robert J. Wakefield (2000)
Preliminary Delphi research on international public relations programming: initial data supports application of certain generic/specific concepts, POPRR, 179-208.

Maureen Taylor (2000)
Toward a public relations approach to nation building, JPRR 12(2), 131-162.

Maureen Taylor and Michael L. Kent (1999)
Challenging assumptions of international public relations: When government is the most important public. PRR 25(2), 131-144.

Robert I. Wakefield (1996)
Interdisciplinary theoretical foundations for international pulbic relations, INTL, 17-30.

Dejan Vercic, Larissa A. Grunig and James E. Grunig (1996)
Global and specific principles of public relations: Evidence from Slovenia, INTL, 31-66.

Laurie J. Wilson (1996)
Strategic cooperative communities: A synthesis of strategic, issue management, and relationship-building approaches in public relations, INTL, 67-80.

Ali Kanso (1996)
Standardization verus localization: Public relations implications of advertising practices in Finland, INTL, 299-316.

Mauritz Sundt Mortensen (1996)
Public relations: An alternative to reality?, INTL, 317-340.

James E. Grunig, Larissa A. Grunig, K. Sriramesh, Yi-Hui Huang and Anastasia Lyra (1995)
Models of public relations in an international setting, JPRR 7(3), 163-186.

Martin D. Sommerness and Ronda Beaman (1994)
Back to the future: International education in public relations, PRR 20(1), 89-96.

James E. Grunig (1993)
Public relations and international affairs: Effects, ethics and responsibility. Journal of International Affairs, 47(1), 137.

Kathy R. Fitzpatrick and Rita Kirk Whillock (1993)
Assessing the impact of globalization on U.S. public relations, PRR 19(4), 315-326.

Carl Botan (1992)
International public relations: Critique and reformulation, PRR 18(2), 149-160.

Melvin L. Sharpe (1992)
The impact of social and cultural conditioning on global public relations, PRR 18(2), 103-108. (* Special Issue)

Joe S. Epley (1992)
Public relations in the global village: An American perspective, PRR 18(2), 109-116. (* Special Issue)

Ray E. Hiebert (1992)
Global public relations in a post-communist world: A new model, PRR 18(2), 117-126. (* Special Issue)

Larissa A. Grunig (1992)
Strategic public relations constituencies on a global scale, PRR 18(2), 127-136. (* Special Issue)

Benno H. Signitzer and Timothy Coombs (1992)
Public relations and public diplomacy: Conceptual convergences, PRR 18(2), 137-147. (* Special Issue)

Transnational Campaigns/Public Diplomacy

Jian Wang (2006)
Managing national reputation and internatiobnal relations in a global era: Public diplomacy revisited, PRR 32(2), 91-96.

Suman Lee (2006)
A analysis of other countries' international public relations in the U.S., PRR 32(2), 97-103.

Juyan Zhang (2006)
Public diplomacy as symbolic interactions: A case study of Asian tsunami relief cmpaigns, PRR 32(1), 26-32.

Melissa A. Johnson (2005)
Five decades of Mexican public relations in the United States: From propaganda to strategic counsel, PRR, 31(1), 11-20.

Juyan Zhang and William L. Benoit (2004)
Message strategies of Saudi Arabia's image restoration campaign after 9/11, PRR, 30(2), 161-168.

Juyan Zhang and Glen T. Cameron (2003)
China's agenda building and image polishing in the U.S.: Assessing an international public relations campaign, PRR, 29(1), 13-28.


Juan-Carlos Malleda and Abubakar D. Alhassan<2006)
Professional views on the Nigeria Institute of Public Relations' law and enforcement, PRR 32(1), 66-68.

Derina R. Holtzhausen (2005)
Public relations practice and political change in South Africa, PRR, 31(3), 407-416.

Asia/Pacific Rim

Dan Berkowitz and Jonghyuk Lee (2004)
Media relations in Korea: Cheong between jouranlist and public relations practitioner, PRR 30(4), 431-438.

Miejeong Han and Sei-Hill Kim (2004)
South Koreans' perception of North Koreans and implications for public relations campaigns, PRR, 30(3), 327-334.

Jonghyuk Lee and Dan Berkowitz (2004
Third gatekeeping in Korea: The screening of first-edition newspapers by public relations practitioners, PRR 30(3), 313-326.

Betty Kaman Lee (2004)
Corporate image examined in a Chinese-based context: A study of a young educated public in Hong Kong. JPRR, 16(1), 1-34.

Ming-Yi Wu and Maureen Taylor (2003)
Public relations in Taiwan: Roles, professionalism and relationship to marketing, PRR, 29(4), 473-484.

Jongmin Park (2003)
Discrepancy between Korean government and corporate practitioners regarding professional standardsin public relations: A co-orientation approach, JPRR,15(3), 249-275.

William Kelly, Tomoko Masumoto and Dirk Gibson (2002)
Kisha kurabu koho: Japanese media relations and public relations, PRR 28(3), 265-281.

Yuhee Rhee (2002)
Global public relations: A cross-cultural study of Excellence theory in South Korea, JPRR, 14(3), 159-184.

Jonhmin Park (2001)
Images of "Hong Bo (Public Relations)" and PR in Korean newspapers, PRR, 27(4), 403-420.

David R. Watson and Lynne M. Sallot(2001)
Public relations practice in Japan: An exploratory study, PRR, 27(4), 389-402.

Ming-Yi Wu, Maureen Taylor and Mong-Ju Chen (2001)
Exploring societal and cultural influences in Taiwanese public relations, PRR, 27(3), 317-336.

Judy Morton and Shirley Leitch (2001)
New Zealand perspectives on public relations, HOPR, 659-664.

Mark McElreath, Ni Chen, Lyudmila Azarova and Valeria Shadrova (2001)
The development of public relations in China, Russia and the United States, HOPR, 665-676.

Raveena Sing and Rosaleen Smyth (2000)
Australian public relations: Status at the turn of the 21st century, PRR, 26(4), 387-402.

Raveena Singh (2000)
Public relations in contemporary India: Current demands and strategy, PRR 26(3), 295-314. <

Zenaida Sarabia Panol (2000)
Phillipine public relations: An industry and practitioner profile, PRR 26(2), 237-254.

K. Sriarmesh, Yungwook Kim and Mioko Takasaki (1999)
Public relations in three Asian cultures: An analysis, JPRR 11(4), 271-292.

Daradirek Ekachai and Rosechongporn Komolsevin (1998)
Public relations education in Thailand, PRR 24(2), 219-234.

Yungwook Kim and Linda Childers Hon (1998)
Craft and professional models of public relations and their relation to job satisfaction among Korean public relations practitioners, JPRR 10(3), 155-176.

Ha-Yong Jang (1997)
Cultural differences in interorganizational network: Shared public relations firms among Japanese and American companies, PRR 23(4), 327-342.

Margie Comrie (1997)
Media tactics in New Zealand's Crown Health Enterprises, PRR 23(2), 161-176.

James K. VanLeuven and Cornelius B. Pratt (1996)
Public relations' role: Realities in Asia and Africa south of the Sahara, INTL, 93-106.

Ni Chen (1996)
Public relations in China: The introduction and development of an occupational field, INTL, 121-154.

Daradirek Ekachai and Rosechongporn Komolsevin (1996)
Public relations in Thailand: Its functions and practitioners' roles, INTL, 155-170.

K. Sriramesh (1996)
Power distance and public relations: An ethnograpic study of Southern Indian Organizations, INTL, 171-190.

Juan F. Jamais, Mariechel J. Navarro and Ramon R. Tuazron (1996)
Public relations in the Phillippines, INTL, 191-206.

James K. VanLeuven (1996)
Public relations in South East Asia. From nation-building campaigns to regional interdependence, INTL, 207-222.

Anne Cooper-Chen and Mizui Kaneshige (1996)
Public relations practice in Japan: Beginning again for the first time, INTL, 223-238.

Chow-Hou Wee, Soo-Jiuan Tan and Kim-Ling Chew (1996)
Organizational response to public relations: An empirical study of firms in Singapore, PRR 22(3), 259-278.

Ni Chen and Hugh M. Culbertson (1996)
Guest relations: A demanding but constrained role for lady public relations practitioners in mainland China, PRR 22(3), 279-296.

Judy Motion and Shirley Leitch (1996)
A discursive perspective from New Zealand: Another world view, PRR 22(3), 297-309.

Daradirek "Gee" Ekachai (1995)
Applying Broom's role scales to Thai public relations practitioners, PRR 21(4), 325-336.

Yeap Soon Beng (1994)
The state of public relations in Singapore, PRR 20(4), 373-394.

Doug Newsom and Bob Carrell (1994)
Professional public relations in India: Need outstrips supply, PRR 20(2), 183-188.


Assumpcio Huertas and Jose Fernandez Cavia (2006)
Center and periphery: Two speeds for the implementation of public relations in Spain, PRR 32(2), 110-117.

Dejan Vercic, Ana Thalac Vercic and Kristina Laco (2006)
Coorientation theory in international relations; The case of Slovenia and Croatia, PRR 32(1), 1-9.

Michael L. Kent, Maureen Taylor and Jejla Turcilo (2006)
Public relations by newly privatized businesses in Bosnia-Herzevogina, PRR 32(1), 10-17.

Romy Froelich and Burkhard Rudiger (2006)
Framing political public relations: Measuring success of political communication strategies in Germany, PRR 32(1), 18-25.

Thomas Pleil (2005)
Community relations for German universities, PRR, 31(3), 437-439.

Jesper Falkheimer (2005)
Formation of a region: Source strategies and media images of the Sweden-Danish Oresund Region, PRR, 31(2), 293-297.

Valerie Terry (2005)
Postcard from the Steppes: A snapshot of public and culture in Kazakstan, PRR, 31(1), 31-36

Knut Gabrielsen (2004)
Loyalty versus conflict in Norweigan practitioners, PRR, 30(3), 303-312.

Alfredo Arceo (2004)
Public relations in Spain: An introduction, PRR, 30(3), 293-302.

Maureen Taylor (2004)
Exploring public relations in Croatia through relational communication and media richness theories, PRR, 30(2), 145-160.

Betteke van Ruler, Dejan Vercic, Gerhard Butschi and Bertil Flodin (2004)
A first look for parameters of public relations in Europe, JPRR, 16(1), 35-64.

Donn James Tilson and Pilar Saura Perez (2003)
Public relations and the new golden age of Spain: A confluence of democracy, economic devleopment and the media, PRR, 29(2), 125-144.

David Miller and Philip Schlesinger (2001)
The changing shape of public relations in the European Union, HOPR, 675-685.

Karl Nessman (2000)
The origins and development of public relations in Germany and Austria, POPRR, 211-225.

Barbara Baerns (2000)
Public relations and the development of the principle of separation of advertising and journalistic media progrmmes in Germany, POPRR, 226-256.

Betteke van Ruler (2000)
Communication management in The Netherlands, PRR, 26(4), 403-424.

Maureen Taylor (2000)
Cultural variance as a challenge to global public relations: A case study of the Coca-Cola scare in Europe, PRR 26(3), 277-294.

David W. Guth
The emergence of public relations in the Russian Federation, PRR 26(2), 191-208.

Christopher Karadjov, Yunkwook Kim and Lyudmil Karavasilev, Model of public relations in Bulgaria and job satisfaction among its practitioners, PRR 26(2), 209-218.

Maureen Taylor (2000)
Media relations in Bosnia: A role for public relations in building civil society, PRR 26(1), 1-14.

Rob de Lange (2000)
Public relations practitioners in the Netherlands: A profile study, PRR 26(1), 15-30.

Jacquie L'Etang (1999)
Public relations education in Britain: An historical review in the context of professionalism, PRR 25(3), 261-290.

Fritz van Wel and Rian van Tilsburg (1998)
'Away with Prejudice': An anti-discrimination campaign among municipal officials in the Netherlands, PRR 24(1), 99-110.

Magne Haug and Haavard Koppang (1997)
Lobbying and public relations in a European context, PRR 23(3), 233-248.

Barbara Baerns and Anja Kutscher-Klink (1997) Danny Moss, Gary Warnaby and Louise Thame (1997)
Public relations or simply product publicity? An exploration of the role of public relations int he UK retail sector, PRRIP, 135-158.

Toby MacManus (1997)
A comparative analysis of public relations in Austria and the United Kingdom, PRRIP, 170-196.

Betteke van Rule (1997)
Communication: Magical mysery or scientific concept? Professional views of public relations practitioners in the Netherlands, PRRIP, 247-263.

Judy VanSlyke Turk (1996)
Romania: From publicitate past to public relations future, INTL, 341-348.

Gunter Bentele and Grazyna-Maria Peter (1996)
Public relations in the German Democratic Republic and the New Federal German States, INTL, 349-366.

Vincent Hazelton and Dean Kruckeberg (1996)
European public relations practice: An evolving paradigm, INTL, 367-380.

Karl Nessmann (1995)
Public relations in Europe: A comparison with the United States, PRR 21(2), 151-160.

Ray E. Hiebert (1994)
Advertising and public relations in transition from communism: The case of Hungary, 1989-1994, PRR 20(4), 357-372.

Charlotte R. Hatfield (1994)
Public relations education in the United Kingdom, PRR 20(2), 189-199.

W. Timothy Coombs, Sherry Holladay, Gabriele Hasenauer and Benno Signitzer (1994)
A comparative analysis of international public relations: Identification and interpretation of similarities and differences between professionalization in Austria, Norway and the United States, JPRR 6(1), 23-66.

Robert E. Brown and Andrew S. Rancer (1993)
Comparison of British and American practitioners. World Communication 22(1), 1.

Latin America

Juan-Carlos Molleda and Ana-Maria Suarez (2005)
Challenges in Colombia for public relations professionals: A qualitative assessment of the economic and political environments, PRR, 31(1), 21-30.

Juan-Carlos Molleda and Mary Ann Ferguson (2004)
Public relations roles in Brazil: Hierarchy eclipses gender differences, JPRR, 16(4), 327-352.

Juan-Carlos Molleda and Andreia Athaydes (2003)
Public relations licensing in Brazil: Evolution and the views of professionals, PRR 29(3), 271-280.

Hernando Gonzalez and Desiree Akel (1996)
Elections and earth matters: Public relations in Costa Rica, INTL, 257-272.

Melvin L. Sharpe and Robert P. Simoes (1996)
Public relations performance in South and Central America, INTL, 273-298.

Middle East

Ray Eldon Hiebert (2005)
Commentary: Challenges for Arab and American public relations and public diplomacy in a global age, PRR, 31(3), 317-322. ** Special issue on Arab Public Relations in 21st Century.

Mohammed Kirat (2005)
Public relations pactice in the Arab World: A critical assessment, PRR, 31(3), 323-332. ** Special issue.

Zahid Hussein (2005)
Arab/Muslim image world-wide: A case for introspection, and intervention, PRR, 31(3), 333-337. ** Special issue.

Marina Vujnovic and Dean Kruckeberg (2005)
Impeative for an Arab model of public relations as a framwok for diplomatic, corporate and nongovenmental organization relationships, PRR, 31(3), 338-343. **Special issue.

Pam Creedon and Mai Al-Khaja (2005)
Public relations and globalization: Building a case for cultural competency in public relations education, PRR, 31(3), 344-354. ** Special issue.

Wail Ismail A. Barry (2005)
Teaching public relations in the information age: A case study at an Egyptian university, PRR, 31(3), 355-361. ** Special issue.

Mohammed A.S. El-Astal (2005)
Culture influence on educational public relations officers' ethical judgments: A cross-national study. PRR, 31(3), 362-375. ** Special issue.

Nashat A. Aqtash (2005)
Palestinian National Authority's public relations policies relating to Israel: Current attitudes among Palestinian officials and media experts, PRR, 31(3), 376-380. ** Special issue.

Ali Rizk (2005)
Future of public relations in United Arab Emirates institutions. PRR, 31(3), 389-398. ** Special issue.

Rise Jane Samra (2001)
Middle East public relations: A new frontier in the United States, HOPR, 685-690.

Dean Kruckeberg (1996)
A global perspective on public relations ethics: The Middle East, PRR 22(2), 181-189.

Ali Alanzai (1996)
Public relations in the Middle East: The case of Saudi Arabia, INTL, 239-256.

Pamela J. Creedon, Mai Abduil Wahed Al-Khaja and Dean Kruckeberg (1995)
Women and public relations education and practice in the United Arab Emirates, PRR 21(1), 59-76.

R.S. Zaharna (1995)
Understanding cultural preferences of Arab communication patterns, PRR 21(3), 241-256.

XIX. Law, Ethics and Performance

Legal Issues

See books on Legal Issues

Kathy R. Fitzpatrick and Michael J. Palenchar (2006)
Disclosing special interests: Constitutional restrictions on front groups, JPRR 18(3), 203-224.

Karla K. Gower(2005)
The fear of public relations in foreign affairs: An examination of the 1963 Fulbright Hearings into foreign agents, PRR, 31(1), 37-46.

Juyan Zhang (2005)
World system and its agents: Analysis of the registrants of Foreign Agent Registration Act (FARA), PRR, 31(1), 47-56.

Erik L. Collins, Lynn M. Zoch and Christopher S. McDonald (2004)
When [professional] worlds collide: implications of Kasky v. Nike for corporate reputation management, PRR 30(4), 411-418.

Eyun-Jung Ki (2004)
Nike v. Kasky: reconsideration of noncommercial v. commercial speech, PRR 30(4), 419-430.

Dirk C. Gibson and Mariposa E. Padilla (1999)
Litigation public relations problems and limits, PRR 25(2), 215-234.

Michael G. Parkinson, Daradirek Ekachai and Laurel Traynowicz Hetherington (2001)
Public relations law, HOPR, 247-258.

Kathy Fitzpatrick (1996)
Public relations and the law: A survey of practitioners, PRR 22(1), 1-8.

David W. Guth (1996)
The acceptance and use of public relations practices among Kansas litigators, PRR 22(4), 341-354.

Matthew D. Bunker (1995)
Takin' care of business: Confidentiality under the business exemption of FOI, PRR 21(2), 137-150.

Lawrence A. Barton (1994)
A quagmire of ethics, profit and the public trust: The crisis in public relations services, Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 1(1), 87-99. Don Sneed, K. Tim Wulfemeyer and Harry W. Stonecipher (1991)
Public relations news releases and libel: Extending First Amendment protections, PRR 17(2), 131-144.

Eric L. Collins and Robert J. Cornet (1990)
Public relations and libel law, PRR 16(4), 36.

Catherine A. Pratt (1990)
First amendment protection for public relations expression: The applicability and limitations of the commercial and corporate speech models, PRRA 2, 205-218.


See books on PR Ethics

Shannon A. Bowen (2005)
A practical model for ethical decision making in issues management and public relations, JPRR, 17(3), 191-216.

Shannon A. Bowen (2004)
Expansion of ethics as the tenth generic principle of public relations excellence: A Kantian theory and model for managing ethical issues. JPRR, 16(1), 65-92.

Yungwook Kim and Youjin Choi (2003)
Ethical standards appear to change with age and ideology: A survey of practitioners, PRR, 29(1), 79-89.

Ruth Edgett (2002)
Toward an ethical framework for advocacy in public relations, JPRR, 14(1), 1-26.

Kenneth D. Day, Qingwen Dong and Clark Robins (2001)
Public relations ethics: An overview and discussion of issues for the 21st century, HOPR, 403-410.

Patricia Curtin and Lois A. Boynton (2001)
Ethics in public relations: Theory and practice, HOPR, 411-422.

Tanni Haas (2001)
Public relations between universality and particularity: Toward a moral-philosophical conception of public relations ethics, HOPR, 423-434.

Kathie A. Leeper (2001)
The measuremetn of ethics: Instruments applicable to public relations, HOPR, 435-440.

Robert van Es and Tieno L. Meijlink (2000)
The dialogic turn of public relations ethics, Journal of Business Ethics, 27, 69-77.

Jon White (1997)
Business and organizational consequences of the moral role of the public relations practitioner, PRRIP, 159-169.

Carol A. Bodensteiner (1997)
Special interest group coalitions: Ethical standards for broad-based support efforts, PRR 23(1), 31-46.

Dean Kruckeberg (1996)
Transnational corporate ethical responsibilities, INTL, 81-92.

Roy V. Leeper (1996)
Moral objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's discourse ethics and public relations, PRR 22(2), 133-150.

Nancy L. Roth, Todd Hunt, Maria Stavropoulos and Karen Babik (1996)
Can't we all just get along? Cultural variables in codes of ethics, PRR 22(2), 151-162.

Kathie A. Leeper (1996)
Public relations ethics and communitarianism: A preliminary investigation, PRR 22(2), 163-180.

Larry R. Judd (1995)
An approach to ethics in the information age, PRR 21(1), 35-45.

Richard Alan Nelson (1994)
Issues communication and advocacy: Contemporary ethical challenges, PRR 20(3), 225-232.

Ralph D. Barney and Jay Jack (1994)
Ethics and professional persuasive communications, PRR 20(3), 233-248.

Elaine E. Englehardt and DeAnn Evans (1994)
Lies, deception and public relations, PRR 20(3), 249-266.

Susanne A. Roschwalb (1994)
The Hill & Knowlton cases: A brief on the controversy, PRR 20(3), 267-276.

Cornelius B. Pratt (1994)
Hill & Knowlton's two ethical dilemmas, PRR 20(3), 277.

Cornelius B. Pratt, Sung Hoon Im and Scarlett N. Montague (1994)
Investing the applications of deontology among U.S. public relations practitioners, JPRR 6(4), 241-266.

Cornelius B. Pratt (1993)
Critique of the classical theory of situational ethics in U.S. public relations, PRR 19(3), 219-234.

Todd Hunt and Andrew Tirpok (1993)
Universal ethics code: An idea whose time has come, PRR 19(1) 1-12.

Donald K. Wright (1993)
Enforcement dilemma: Voluntary nature of public relations codes, PRR 19(1), 13-20.

Dean Kruckeberg (1993)
Universal ethics code: Both possible and feasible, PRR 19(1), 21-32.

Doug A. Newsom, Shirley A. Ramsey and Bob J. Carrell (1993)
Chameleon Chasing II: A replication, PRR 19(1), 33-48.

Patricia Houlihan Parsons (1993)
Framework for analysis of conflicting loyalties, PRR 19(1), 49-58.

John P. Ferre (1993)
Ethical public relations: Pro bono work among PRSA members, PRR 19(1) 59-76.

Randal Marlin (1993)
Public relations ethics: Ivy Lee, Hill and Knowlton and the Gulf War, International Journal of Moral and Social Studies, 8(3), 237-256.

Thomas H. Bivins (1992)
A systems model for ethical decision making in public relations, PRR 18(4), 365-384.

Cornelius B. Pratt (1992)
Correlates and predictors of self-reported ethics among U.S. public relations practitioners, Psychological Reports, 70(1), 259.

Cornelius B. Pratt (1991)
PRSA Members' perceptions of public relations ethics, PRR 17(2), 145-160.

Cornelius B. Pratt (1991)
Public relations: The empirical research on practitioner ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 10(3), 229.

Ron Pearson (1990)
Ethical values or strategic values? The two faces of systems theory in public relations, PRRA 2, 219-234.

Jacob Shamir, Barbara Strauss Reed and Steven Connell (1990)
Individual differences in ethical values of public relations practitioners, Journalism Quarterly 67(4), 956-963.

S.L. Harrison (1990)
Pedagogical ethics for public relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 5(4), 256.

Thomas H. Bivins (1989)
Ethical implications of the relationship of purpose to role and function in public relations. Journal of Business Ethics, 8(1), 65

Genevieve McBride (1989)
Ethical thought in public relations history: Seeking a relevant perspective. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4(1), 5-20. (* Special Issue)

Robert L. Heath and Michael Ryan (1989)
Public relations role in defining corporate social responsibility. Journal of Media Ethics 4(1), 21. (* Special Issue)

Don W. Stacks and Donald K. Wright (1989)
A quantitative examination of ethical dilemmas in public relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4(1), 53-64 (* Special Issue)

Cornelius B. Pratt and Gerald W. McLaughlin (1989)
Ethical inclinations of public relations majors. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4(1), 68-91. (* Special Issue)

James H. Bissland and Terry Lynn Rentner (1989)
Education's role in professionalizing public relations: A progress report, Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 4(1), 92-105. (* Special Issue)

Cases and Commentaries: PRSA finds some bad public relations, Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4(1), 106. (* Special Issue)

Donald K. Wright (1989)
Ethics research in public relations: An overview, PRR 15(2), 3-5. (* Special Issue)

Dean Kruckeberg (1989)
The need for an international code of ethics, PRR 15(2), 6-18.(* Special Issue)

Donald K. Wright (1989)
Examing ethical and moral values of public relations people, PRR 19-33. (* Special Issue)

Larry R. Judd (1989)
Credibility, public relations and social responsibility, PRR 15(2), 34-40. (* Special Issue)

Myron K. Jordan (1989)
FDR's condemnation of electric utility public relations, PRR 15(2), 41-51. (* Special Issue)

Ron Pearson (1989)
Reviewing Albert J. Sullivan's theory of public relations ethics, PRR 15(2), 52-61. (* Special Issue)

Ron Pearson (1989)
Business ethics as communiction ethics: Public relations practice and the idea of dialogue, PRT, 111-134.

Frank W. Wylie (1989)
A study of ethics in college and university relations, PRR 15(2), 63-67. (* Special Issue)

Professional Preparation and Education

Ashley Brown and Lisa T. Fall (2005)
Using the Port of Entry report as a benchmark: Survey results of on-the-job training among public relations internship site managers, PRR, 31(2), 301-305.

Rachel Kovacs(2005)
Teaching 9/11: Using public relations to bolster civil society, PRR, 31(2), 305-308.

Thomasena Shaw and Candace White (2004)
Public relations and journalism educators' perception of media rleations, PRR 30(4), 493-502.

Marie C. Hardin and Donnalyn Pompper (2004)
Writing in the public relations curriculum: Practitioner perceptions versus pedagogy, PRR, 30(3), 357-364.

Also see Teaching Public Relations, the online monograph series about teaching, published by the Public Relations Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

Jane Hiscock (2004)
Developing knowledge management awareness in public relations students, PRR, 30(1), 107-145.

Shannon A. Bowen (2003)
'I thought it would be more glamorous': Preconceptions and misconceptions among students in the public relations principles course, PRR, 29(2), 199-

Liese L. Hutchison (2002)
Teaching ethics across the public relations curriculum, PRR 28(3), 301-309.

Claire Hoertz Badaracco (2002)
Editorial: How we teach: an introduction to this special issue on innovative pedagogy, PRR, 28(2), 135-136.*

Bonita Dostal Neff (2002)
Integrating leadership processes: redefining the principles course, PRR, 28(2), 137-148.*

Claire Hoertz Badaracco (2002)
The linked classroom as studio: connective and the etymology of networks, PRR, 28(2), 149-156.*

Charles A. Lubbers (2002)
Using alternative teaching techniques to enhance student performance in the traditional introductory public relations course, PRR, 28(2), 157-166.*

Michael G. Parkinson and Daradirek Ekachai (2002)
The Socratic method in the introductory PR course: an alternative pedagogy, PRR, 28(2), 167-174.*

Michelle O'Malley and Tom Kelleher (2002)
Papayas and pedagogy: geographically dispersed teams and Internet self-efficacy, 175-184.*

Karen L. Slattery (2002)
Loyalty, harm and duty: PBL in a media ethics course, PRR, 28(2), 185-190.

Bruce K. Berger (2002)
Applying active learning in the graduate level: merger issues at Newco, PRR, 28(2), 191-200.

Gayle M. Pohl and Dee Vandeventer (2001)
The workplace, undergraduate education and career preparation: The public relations academic and practitioner viewers, HOPR, 357-368.

Timothy Coombs (Ed.)(2001)
Special Issue of Public Relations Review: Resources for public relations teaching: facilitating the growth of public relations education, PRR 27(1), 1-2*

Melissa Motschall and Michelle A. Najor (2001)
The client-centered approach as a foundation for teachintg the introductory course in public relations, PRR 27(1), 3-26.*

Cytnhia M. King (2001)
The write stuff: Teaching the introductory public relations writing course, PRR 27(1), 27-46.*

Debra A. Worley (2001)
Teaching the public relations campaign course, PRR 27(1), 47-58.*

Michael L. Kent (2001)
Teaching mediated public relations, PRR 27(1), 59-72.*

Maureen Taylor (2001)
Internationalizing the public relations curriculum, PRR 27(1), 73-88.*

W. Timothy Coombs (2001)
Teaching the crisis management/communication course, PRR 27(1), 89-102.*

Dirk C. Gibson (2001)
Communication faculty internships, PRR 27(1), 103-118.*

Bonita Dostal Neff (2001)
Accreditation: Is there access to the process for all public relations academic programs--if desired?, HOPR, 369-380.

John J. Pauly and Liese L. Hutchison (2000)
Case studies and their use in public relations, HOPR, 381-388.

Duffy, Margaret E. (2000)
There's no two-way symmetric about it: A postmodern examination of public relations textbooks. Critical Studies in Media Communciation, 17(3), 294-315.

Linda Aldoory and Elizabeth L. Toth (2000)
An exploratory look at graduate public relations education, PRR 26(1), 115-126.

Michael J. Maynard (1999)
Challenging the 3.0 GPA eligibility standard for public relations internships, PRR 25(4), 495-507.

Commission on Public Relations Education (1999, October)
Public relations education for the 21st century--A port of entry. New York: Public Relations Society of America. Read online.

Judy Van Slyke Turk, Carl Botan and Sherwyn P. Morreale (1999) Meeting education challenges in the information age, PRR 25(1), 1-4.*

Dean Kruckeberg and John L. Paluszek (1999) Siognificance of the NCA's "Dialogue on Public Relations Education" Conference, PRR 25(1), 5-8.*

Don W. Stacks, Carl Botan and Judy VanSlyke Turk (1999)
Perceptions of public relations education, PRR 25(1), 9-28.*

Bonita Dostal Neff, Gael Walker, Michael F. Smith and Pam J. Creedon (1999)
Outcomes desired by practitioners and academics, PRR 25(1), 29-44.*

Elizabeth L. Toth (1999)
Models for instruction and curriculum, PRR 25(1), 45-54.*

W. Timothy Coombs and Karyn Rybacki (1999)
Public relations education: Where is pedagogy?, PRR 25(1), 55-64.*

Donald Rybacki and Dan Lattimore (1999)
Assessment of undergraduate and graduate programs, PRR 25(1), 65-76.*

Jim Van Leuven (1999)
Four new course competencies for majors, PRR 25(1), 77-86.*

Dan P. Miller and Debra A. Kernisky (1999)
Opportunity realized: Undergraduate education within departments of communication, PRR 25(1), 87-100.*

Maria P. Russell (1999)
Toward the ideal professional master's degree program, PRR 25(1), 101-112.*

Gabriel Vasquez and Carl Botan (1999)
Models for theory-based M.A. and Ph. program, PRR 25(1), 113-122.*

Dean Kruckeberg (1998)
The future of public relations education: Some recommendations, PRR 24(2), 235-248.

Benno Signitzer (1997)
Towards a typology of MA and PhD theses projects in public relations, PRRIP, 122-131.

Cornelius B. Pratt and Chris W. Ogbondah (1996)
International public relations education: U.S. issues and perspectives, INTL, 381-396.

Hugh M. Culbertson and Ni Chen (1996)
Public relations education in the United States: Can it broaden international students' horizons?, INTL, 397-416.

J. David Pincus, Bob Rayfield and Coral M. Ohl (1994)
Public relations education in MBA programs: Challenges and opportunities, PRR 20(1), 55-72.

Hugh M. Culberton and Dennis W. Jeffers (1992)
Social, political and economic contexts: Keys in educating the true public relations professionals, PRR 18(1), 53-66.

William P. Ehling (1992)
Public relations education and professionalism, EXCEL, 439-466.

Gay Wakefield and Laura Perkins Cottone (1992)
Public relations executives' perceptions of disciplinary emphases important to public relations practice for the 1990s, PRR 18(1), 67-78.

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