I study human memory. Though I study a broad range of issues related to human memory processes
and performance, my primary research interest is in people's ability to show memory when they
experience retrieval failure. For example, people sometimes fail to recall the information that they are
searching for in memory. When experiencing such memory failure, people often still have other infor-
mation available to them about the memory—information that can at times be used to make decisions
with remarkable accuracy. An example is the phenomenon recognition without identification and a
seemingly similar phenomenon, recognition without recall. I am interested in the various ways that
people can show memory when recall fails, and I am also interested in the neural mechanisms that
underlie memory that occurs when retrieval fails. In my lab, we use many methodological techniques
for addressing these questions, including behavioral paradigms, virtual reality technology, brain
electrophysiological techniques, and, in collaboration with other laboratories and facilities, functional
magnetic resonance imaging (or fMRI).
Familiarity-based Recognition. One example of a form of memory that can occur in the face of
retrieval failure is familiarity, which is the feeling of having experienced something before, without
being able to pinpoint exactly why the feeling is occurring. One branch of my research aims to study
familiarity as a basis for recognition and how it differs from other processes that enable recognition.
Features that Produce Recognition when Recall Fails. One branch of my research attempts
to identify what features of an item or situation can produce recognition when recall fails. For example,
when retrieval fails, do geometric shapes contribute to a sense of recognition with pictures and objects?
Do phonemes contribute to a sense of recognition with spoken words? Can rhythm contribute to a sense
of recognition with songs? Can more abstract features, such as semantic features, produce a sense of
recognition when retrieval fails?
Subjective Memory Experiences that Occur During Retrieval Failure. The ability to
recognize having had a prior experience with a situation when recall of the exact prior experience itself
fails is related to the subjective experience of sensing that something is in memory. Besides the feeling
of familiarity, an example of one such type of subjective experience is the déjà vu experience, which
occurs when one has a feeling of having experienced something before, despite evidence to the contrary.
Most commonly, déjà vu occurs with places—people experience a feeling of having been somewhere
before, despite knowing that they have never been there. Déjà vu may result from a memory that fails
to be retrieved, as is humorously illustrated in this commercial. One branch of my research aims to
better understand déjà vu as a memory phenomenon, and virtual reality is one of the tools that we use
in my lab to investigate this (click here for a video description). Another example of a type of subjective memory experience that occurs during retrieval failure is the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon,
whereby one feels that a word is in memory, but cannot currently access it. One branch of my research
investigates this phenomenon and how it differs from other seemingly similar subjective memory
experiences that occur during retrieval failure.
Unconscious Recognition. Other ways that people can show memory when retrieval fails may
be unconscious. Recent evidence, from my lab and others, suggests that people may sometimes be
influenced by prior memories to choose certain items over others or to react in certain ways to
situations, yet be completely unaware that situations in memory are driving those decisions.
Another branch of my research aims to study this ability and how it differs from conscious forms
of memory that occur when retrieval fails.
Cleary, A.M. (2012). On the contribution of unconscious processes to recognition
memory. Cognitive Neuroscience, 3, 210-211.
Ryals, A.J. & Cleary, A.M. (2012). The recognition without cued recall phenomenon:
Support for a feature-matching theory over a partial recollection account.
Journal of Memory and Language, 66, 747-762 . (pdf)
Kostic, B., McFarlan, C. C., & Cleary, A.M. (in press). Extensions of the survival advantage
in memory: Examining the role of ancestral context and implied social isolation.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. (pdf)
Nomi, J.S., & Cleary, A.M. (in press). Judgments for inaccessible targets: Comparing
recognition without identification and the feeling of knowing. Memory & Cognition.
Nomi, J.S., Rhodes, M.G., & Cleary, A.M. (in press). Emotional facial expressions
Differentially influence predictions and performance for face recognition.
Cognition & Emotion.
Cleary, A.M., Brown, A.S., Sawyer, B.D., Nomi, J.S., Ajoku, A.C., & Ryals, A.J. (2012).
Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation
to déjà vu: A virtual reality investigation. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 969-975.
Ryals, A. J., Yadon, C. A., Nomi, J. S., & Cleary, A. M. (2011). When word identification
fails: ERP correlates of recognition without identification and of word identification
failure. Neuropsychologia, 12, 3224-3237. (pdf)
Cleary, A. M., & DeLosh, E.L. (2011). Wireless response systems: 'clicker' uses and
benefits in and out of the classroom. In L’Abate, L. & Kaiser, D. (Eds.) Handbook
of Technology in Psychology, Psychiatry, and Neurology: Theory, Research and Practice. New York: Nova Science Publishers. (pdf)
Cleary, A. M. (2011). Face recognition without identification. In Corcoran, P.M. (Ed.) Reviews,
Refinements and New Ideas in Face Recognition. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Publishers. http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/face-recognition-without-identification
Muir, G. M., & Cleary, A. M. (2011). Enhancing Student Engagement and Learning
Using “Clicker”-based Interactive Classroom Demonstrations. In Dunn, D.S,
Wilson, J. C., Freeman, J., & Stowell, J. R. (Eds.) Best Practices for Technology-
Enhanced Teaching and Learning. Oxford University Press. (pdf)
Kostic, B., Cleary, A.M., Severin, K., & Miller, S.W. (2010). Detecting analogical
resemblance without retrieving the source analogy. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,
17, 405-411. (pdf)
Cleary, A. M., Konkel, K. E., Nomi, J. N., & McCabe, D. P. (2010). Odor recognition
without identification. Memory & Cognition, 38, 452-460. (pdf)
Eslick, A. N., Kostic, B., & Cleary, A. M. (2010). True and false memory for color
names versus actual colors: Support for the visual distinctiveness heuristic in
memory for color information. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,
63, 1104-1126. (pdf)
Cleary, A. M., Ryals, A. J., & Nomi, J. N. (2009). Can déjà vu result from similarity
to a prior experience? Support for the similarity hypothesis of déjà vu.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 1082-1088. (pdf)
Cleary, A. M. & Reyes, N. L. (2009). Scene recognition without identification. Acta
Psychologica, 131, 53-62. (pdf)
Kostic, B. & Cleary, A. M. (2009). Song recognition without identification: When
people cannot “name that tune” but can recognize it as familiar. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 146-159. (pdf)
Morris, A. L., Cleary, A. M., & Still, M. S. (2008). The role of autonomic arousal in
feelings of familiarity. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1378-1385. (pdf)
Cleary, A.M. (2008). Recognition memory, familiarity, and déjà vu experiences.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 353-357. (pdf)
Cleary, A. M. (2008). Using wireless response systems to replicate behavioral research
findings in the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 42-44.(pdf)
Kostic, B. & Cleary, A. M. (2008). Memory Assessment. In H. E. A. Tinsley &
S. H. Lease (Volume Eds.), Encyclopedia of counseling psychology.
Editor-in-chief: F. T. L. Leong. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Langley, M. M., Cleary, A. M., **Woods, J. & *Kostic, B. (2008). Picture recognition
Without picture identification: A method for assessing the role of perceptual
information in familiarity-based picture recognition. Acta Psychologica, 127,
Cleary, A. M., **Winfield, M. M., & *Kostic, B. (2007). Auditory recognition without
identification. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1869-1877.
Langley, M. M., Cleary, A.M. & *Kostic, B. (2007). On the use of wireless
response systems in experimental psychology: Implications for the
behavioral researcher. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 816-823.
Cleary, A. M. & Specker, L. E. (2007). Recognition without face identification. Memory &
Cognition, 35, 1610-1619.
Cleary, A. M. & *Langley, M. M. (2007). Retention of the structure underlying sentences.
Language & Cognitive Processes, 22, 614-628.
Cleary, A. M., Morris, A.L., & *Langley, M. M. (2007). Recognition memory for novel stimuli:
The structural regularity hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 379-393.
Cleary, A. M. (2006). Relating familiarity-based recognition and the tip-of-the-tongue
phenomenon: Detecting a word’s recency in the absence of access to the
word. Memory & Cognition, 34, 804-816.
Cleary, A. M., & Greene, R. L. (2005). Recognition without perceptual identification: A
measure of familiarity? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 1143-
Cleary, A. M. (2005). ROCs in recognition with and without identification. Memory, 5, 472-
Cleary, A. M., **Langley, M. M., & *Seiler, K. R. (2004). Recognition without picture
identification: Geons as components of the pictorial memory trace. P
sychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 903-908.
Cleary, A. M. (2004). Orthography, phonology, and meaning: Word features that give
rise to feelings of familiarity in recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,
Cleary, A. M., & Greene, R. L. (2004). True and false memory in the absence of
perceptual identification. Memory, 12, 231-236.
Curran, T., & Cleary, A. M. (2003). Using ERPs to dissociate recollection from
familiarity in picture recognition. Cognitive Brain Research, 15, 191-205.
Cleary, A. M. (2002). Recognition with and without identification: Dissociative effects
of meaningful encoding. Memory & Cognition, 30, 758-767.
Cleary, A. M., & Greene, R. L. (2002). Paradoxical effects of presentation modality on
false memory. Memory, 10, 55-61.
Cleary, A. M., Curran, T., & Greene, R. L. (2001). Memory for detail in item versus
associative recognition. Memory & Cognition, 29, 413-423.
Cleary, A. M., & Greene, R. L. (2001). Memory for unidentified items: Evidence for the
use of letter information in familiarity processes. Memory & Cognition, 29, 540-545.
Cleary, A. M., & Greene, R. L. (2000). Recognition without identification. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1063-1069.
Anne M. Cleary, PhD
Human Memory Lab
1876 Campus Delivery
Department of Psychology
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1876